The stress on nationalization of industries and enterprises is a recent development especially in India. The Railways, Civil Aviation, Insurance and fourteen major banks have already been nationalised in India.
Under the auspicious of the state a number of industries such as fertilizer, Iron and steel plant etc are established or expanded in India. While creating or expanding industries labour welfare service to those citizen who are engaged in these industries.
One of the function of the welfare state is to regulate the payment of wages, compensation, duration, of work and conditions for the benefit of those who work in different industries and public concerns. Another important responsibilities, of the welfare state to create conditions congenial for an increase, in production and equitable distribution of wealth among people. This move is intended to reduce inequality and enhance the general standard of living among them. For economic security the state takes upon itself the responsibility for providing food, clothing and shelter to its citizen.
The state achieves its primary objective and welfare of people, by adopting economic planning and other measures intended to provide the maximum happiness to the largest number of people.
The welfare state places equal emphasis on individual and society. The best example of a welfare state is Great Britain. There are some general objections negative as well as positive to the concept of the welfare state.
The negative objections are made with regard to Germany, Belgium, Japan and the United States of America which do not believe in the concept of welfare state. But these nations have surpassed the welfare states like India and England in so far as welfare activity is concerned.
It is argued that the welfare state England would not have accomplished that it has actually achieved in the field of welfare activity without generous economic assistance from the USA. The positive objections leveled against the welfare state is that the state help kills self help. The state help is a deterrent to initiative, drive and intelligence which individuals cannot develop as the state takes upon itself the responsibility for their welfare.
A number of modern nations are proud of being described as welfare states. India is not an exception to it. The wave of pride stemming from welfare activity is sweeping over the welfare states.
But to declare India a welfare state in the true sense of- the term full concentration on developing great need for efforts to improve cottage and small industries, the system of educations particularly in the rural areas.
Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages: Definitions of welfare state There are differences of opinion on the concept of a welfare state among writers who have interpreted it differently.
Functions of welfare state A welfare state in addition to the general functions of state discussed else where, performs the following functions. According to such theories, welfare state expansion should have been a steady process that followed similar trajectories in all industrialized countries. In fact, however, expansion occurred in a sporadic manner, with spurts of growth and stagnation, while national welfare states came in a plethora of different sizes and shapes.
In , for example, U. Modern theories of the welfare state account for these temporal and national idiosyncrasies by focusing on political determinants such as the partisan complexion of government, political institutions, and international influences. However, as historian Peter Baldwin has noted, no single configuration of socioeconomic variables or group of actors can fully explain the development of the welfare state.
With the establishment of the International Labour Organization ILO in , the first efforts to internationalize some aspects of social policy went into effect. The collapse of the central powers monarchies in World War I — and the subsequent democratization of Europe meant that huge new segments of society had a voice in government. Unions and parties representing laborers gained access to the corridors of power, and parties based on Christian social doctrines rose to the fore. In most countries, the Great Depression — put an end to this first phase of welfare state expansion, but in the United States and Scandinavia it actually provided an impetus to development.
World War II — and the subsequent drive to establish an internationally sanctioned world order to ensure peace and security had a major impact on welfare state development.
European welfare states experienced their second massive growth spurt during the so-called trentes glorieuses, from to The ruling paradigm during this period was that increased economic integration and trade among European nations would forestall future conflicts, but European integration was a gradual process, and this second wave of welfare state expansion, which was episodic, took place in economies that were still relatively closed.
Companies could not relocate beyond national borders to avoid taxation, nor was it easy for workers to migrate abroad in search of better wages. Solidarity was a requisite component of such economies, and governments of all partisan complexions took advantage of the opportunity to impose redistribution. The war had paved the way for public support of the Keynesian economic model, which had been developed during the depression.
With whole societies in need of rebuilding, it was easy to justify high taxes and public expenditures if they promoted high employment and cared for the disabled and destitute. The idea that capitalist economies required government intrusion in economic and social affairs to manage demand and stabilize business cycles was widely accepted.
Exceptionally high rates of postwar economic growth and a relatively even balance of power between labor unions and business interests tended to mitigate conflict over the distribution of wealth. Existing social programs were extended to cover new groups of beneficiaries, such as peasants or the self-employed, entirely new social welfare schemes were adopted, and there was a general increase in social benefits throughout the developed world.
Even as nations became wealthier and welfare states expanded, the national differences in social expenditure levels and institutional patterns persisted and new ones developed. In the early s, welfare capitalism began to falter and the golden age came to an end. The international political economy had undergone a fundamental transformation, beginning in the early s with the collapse of the Bretton Woods financial system and the economic slowdown that the oilprice crises had triggered.
The welfare state came under fire from all directions. Criticism came from across the political spectrum, but the biggest challenge came from proponents of neoliberalism and a new, morally engaged conservatism.
They viewed high cash transfer rates as a distortion of the labor market that discouraged business investment and inhibited economic growth. As neoliberal parties gained and wielded power in the s, deregulation, the internationalization of capital markets, and escalating trade liberalization became the nor m. The s were characterized by the emergence of a truly global economy that included the Single European Market and European Monetary Union. In Europe the deepening of integration imposed constraints on fiscal and monetary policy that precluded Keynesian macroeconomic programs at the national level.
It also meant that national welfare states lost a degree of sovereignty and became embedded in an emerging multilevel social policy regime. More generally, economic globalization created more competition between nation-states for footloose capital and investments, which depended in part on low labor costs and intensified pressures on national social standards.
Enhanced exit options for capital made taxation and redistribution more difficult to implement and created an asymmetric balance of power between labor organizations and business interests.
In addition to the external challenges posed by the emergence of the global economy, mature welfare states also have been confronted by a number of internal domestic challenges that are related to societal modernization and the transition from industrial to postindustrial economies.
Service sector productivity is generally lower than industrial sector productivity. This means that the service sector generates lower rates of economic growth and smaller wage increases, both of which have negative feedback effects on public revenues. Private service sector jobs also tend to be less well-compensated than industrial jobs. Gains in employment in the private service sector can only be achieved by generating higher inequality, unless the public sector exercises a compensatory function.
Competing in the global economy requires a flexible labor force that can be upsized, downsized, and transformed by retraining or replacements as demand changes and competitive advantages shift away from established industries. This need, as well as greater labor market participation by women, has led to the proliferation of part-time, temporary, and fixed-term jobs.
The welfare state was not designed to accommodate these alternative forms of labor, which can be expected, in the long run, to produce large numbers of elderly poor. The increase in the number of women in the labor market also has decreased the capacity of families to provide welfare, as women who stayed at home were traditionally responsible for the care of children, elders, and the infirm.
An increase in the numbers of single-parent households has had similar effects. At the same time, the erosion of traditional family forms and changes in male and female contributions have generated new social risks and needs, placing new demands on social care. Single parents and families with many children, for example, now comprise a significant percentage of the poor.
Modern welfare state development is generally considered to lead to social security or benefits payments, social housing provision, health provision, social work and educational services. Together these services are known as the 'big five' but these services tend to develop over time and have differed in quantity, availability and quality.
The essay will look at the aims of the welfare state from conception and how it has changed to present times. The welfare state being analysed is the welfare state in the United Kingdom. It will discuss the nature of the social democratic welfare state and liberal criticisms of .
Free sample essay on a welfare state. The concept of the welfare state is comparatively of recent origin. It came into prominence mainly after the Second World War. Its ideals and policies, popular in recent times are followed by a number of countries. The beveridge report started in the introduction of welfare state, and involved the main changes and these included the national health service act of which make benefit available to children and families and the National insurance act this act provides unemployment and sickness some benefits and housing The welfare state was not a response to poverty but was produced to encourage the .
Essays - Social Policy Essays Modern welfare state development is generally considered to lead to social security or benefits payments, social housing provision, health provision, social work and educational services. Together these services are known as the 'big five' but these services tend to develop over time and have differed in quantity, availability and quality. Welfare State Essay The welfare state was an essentially European invention that spread and developed in the states of western Europe and some of their New World offshoots. What is today known as the welfare state, Sozialstaat, l’état providence, or folkhemmet was most aptly described by historian Asa Briggs in a article as a state.