It is important that all members of society work together to provide the opportunities for all members to reach their full potential. It helps all of us to help one another. It is a core concept to better understand the fertility of populations and the unmet need for contraception birth control and family planning. Unintended pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of problems for the mom and baby.
If a pregnancy is not planned before conception, a woman may not be in optimal health for childbearing. For example, women with an unintended pregnancy could delay prenatal care that may affect the health of the baby i. The proportions of live births reported as mistimed or unwanted vary by country, but are approximately equal Singh et al, , Bradley et al, Contraceptive failure Contraceptive failure is a significant cause of accidental pregnancy.
Some women who become unintentionally pregnant claimed to have been using a method of contraception at the time they conceived. Most of these women were of the belief that they were infertile. Discontinuing or Switching Some women have fallen pregnant while in the process of switching from one form of contraception to another. This usually happens when the women is not happy with the type of contraception they are on usually because of health reasons. Poverty This is the most reason for unintended pregnancies in societies with a large number of people living in poverty.
Researchers found that rates of unplanned pregnancies and births among poor women were five and six times higher, respectively, than among higher-income women.
This suggests that women who lead stable lives, women who are older, more affluent and better-educated tend to have better reproductive health outcomes, while women whose lives are less stable, such as younger, poorer or less educated women, have higher rates of unplanned pregnancies, unwanted births and abortions.
Although the study was done in America, it is also true for the major part of the world. For the purposes of this study, we will focus on poverty as the main cause of unintended pregnancies. Poverty in Swaziland Poverty in Swaziland has been seen to be caused by various factors in both rural and urban settlements. In November , the World food programme concluded that poverty in Swaziland is caused by factors such as the scarcity of food sources as there has been change in weather patterns which has resulted in natural disasters such as drought and floods therefore making it hard for Swazis.
As a result they have to face the high prices of food. This has resulted in weak economic performance of the country. In December there was a national conference based on the poverty of Swaziland in which Thuli M Zwane pointed out that the shortage of food in Swaziland leads to poverty either due to poor distribution or the inability to buy food.
In the same meeting Zeblon. Ngoitiama said that there are more people suffering from poverty in informal settlements and rural areas than the urban area. Sarah Dupont-Mkhonza stated that domestic workers are forced to work in a low-income labour market because of poverty. In March the Children by Choice Association stated that a large number of women want to delay their pregnancies through the use of contraceptives but because a large number of them are not able to get access to basic needs, they end up falling pregnant due to the fact that they are forced to have unprotected sex just to put food on the table.
This then leads to unsafe and illegal for some countries abortions which are performed by unskilled individuals usually under unhygienic conditions. Poverty is one of the many reasons at which people abort as they cannot deal with the finances that come along with the unplanned pregnancy.
People living in poverty have a high rate of individuals affected with HIV and thus giving more reasons for them to get rid of the unintended pregnancy. When looking into the relationship we would say that there is a close link between unplanned pregnancies and poverty and it is a negative effect. When these women have unplanned pregnancies it may cost them their jobs because the work places are not a suitable environment for them or because they are no longer fit to work the same number hours as before and this could lead to deeper poverty that is if they lose their jobs.
When women living in poverty have unintended pregnancies they may turn to abortion as a solution but this does not reduce or remove the problem of which is poverty but simply eliminates the factors that could make the situation worse MacNair Rachel,Ph.
The investigation will analyse the factors that cause unintended pregnancies among the poor Matsapha textile female workers in Swaziland This chapter will also highlight the research design, research method, the population under study, the sampling procedure, and the method that was used to collect the data. This approach implies postulating hypotheses, doing quantitative experiments and then either sustaining or rejecting the hypotheses based on statistical analysis of the measured data verification or falsification of hypotheses as shown in the figure below.
Research Design It is the blueprint for conducting the study that maximises control over factors that could interfere with the validity of the findings. Designing a study helps the researcher to plan and implement the study in a way that will help the researcher to obtain the intended results, thus increasing the chances of obtaining information that could be associated with the real situation Burns and Grove Research Methodology The term methodology refers to the overall approaches and perspectives to the research process as a whole and is concerned with why you collected certain data, what data you collected, where you collected it, and how you analysed it Collis and Hussey, Research method A research method refers to the various specific tools or ways data can be collected and analysed, e.
For this research, a quantitative, explanatory approach was adopted to investigate whether there is a correlation between poverty and unintended pregnancies among women in the Matsapha textile industry.
Sampling Sampling is the process of selecting units e. Sample Population The female employees in the Matsapha textile industry have be selected for the sample. These have been selected on the basis of their willingness to share information of relevance to this study.
Sample Size A sample is a subset, or some part, of a larger population. The purpose of sampling is to enable the researcher to estimate some unknown characteristics of the population.
A sample size of 50 participants was selected for this study. Sample Method The method used for choosing subjects has implications for generalizing the research results Cozby, This section explores the method that will be used to select respondents to this study. The researcher used non-probability sampling to gather the samples. This is a technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected To be more precise, the researcher used Convenience sampling.
The subjects were selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher. Polit and Hungler In this study, data will be collected using surveys. A questionnaire was be developed and circulated to the selected objects in the population. The questionnaire will be self-administered. Communicating ImageThe Image or Images uses for movie poster design should be able to communicate to the public what the movie is all about. If the movie is about any plot, horror or history the poster should be able to effectively communicate it.
It should be able immediately seek attention and interest of anyone who glances the poster. The poster should give a rough idea about what the movie is about. The movie poster designers have been using this formula for designing many movie posters since many years. The first word 'attention' is primary and the movie poster should be able to grab the attention of the observers.
Flashy graphics and provocative images are usually used for seeking attention but there are other ways too for achieving the milestone. The second word 'interest' is equally important. The observer on looking at the poster should feel that the movie is interesting.
The observer should be interested in knowing what the movie is about or what happens in it. One way of developing interest in the poster is through putting up such an image in the poster that raises a number of questions in the mind of the observer. The observer should feel that those questions can be answered only when the movie is seen.
The design of the poster should be such that it develops an intense desire to watch the movie. The poster should appeal equally to the fans and people who know about the actors, directors or producers from the poster. The movie poster design should call on the observer to act, purchase the ticket and watch the movie.
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Research Proposal on Poverty Reduction. Poverty reduction is the complex of actions aimed to reduce the level of poverty in the world. Poverty is only of the biggest problems of the human civilization. There always have been rich and poor people.
Research Papers words ( pages) Paper Proposal: The Effects of Television Content on Children - Paper Proposal: The Effects of Television Content on Children The issue of television being safe for children is a growing issue for our society.
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