Make sure that you have the chance to write a first draft and then let it percolate for awhile. Very few people are able to dash off a good paper in one sitting! Do briefly tell your reader what your paper is about and what your main thesis is. Notice that there is a difference between telling your reader what you are going to talk about and telling your reader what you will argue. In the Meno , Meno presents Socrates with a paradox about inquiry. Thus, we reach the paradoxical conclusion that inquiry is impossible.
In what follows, I will argue that Socrates does not adequately defend his theory of recollection. The second of these introductions is superior to the first. Notice that only the second presents an actual thesis statement.
Sometimes you will be in a better position to write an introduction after you have written the main body of your paper, for you will then have a better idea of what your argument really is. You have written a short paper; the reader recalls your argument and will only be annoyed if you repeat yourself. Do find some nice way of wrapping up your essay. This does not mean that you should claim that every facet of the issue has been addressed.
Sometimes a conclusion sets out problems that still remain. Make sure that you do not claim that you have shown more than have actually shown in your paper. It is especially tempting to exaggerate your accomplishments in a grand-finale-style concluding paragraph; resist this temptation.
For example, here is a conclusion that avoids exaggeration: However, as I have argued, we cannot generalize from the case of geometrical knowledge to knowledge of other sorts of facts. Thus, Socrates fails to provide an adequate reason to believe his claim that all learning is recollection. The principal virtue in philosophical writing is clarity. As you reread each sentence of your draft, ask yourself: As you re-read your paper, think about whether it is organized in the best way.
Would it be more effective if this paragraph went here, and that one went there? Very often, our first efforts need a rather serious structural overhaul. Also, look for opportunities to improve your paper, such as adding an example here, rewriting an awkward sentence there, and so on…. Start with paraphrasing the thesis statement. Recall the arguments from the body paragraphs one-by-one it would be a summary and end up by involving a rhetorical question or personal forecasts about the topic.
How about taking some time to explore the paper format? In most cases, students apply APA format to cite and reference essays. An example of APA citation would be: Teaching native speakers to recognize foreign-accented speech. To check whether the work matches the requirements, download and study the corresponding writing style manual online or use free templates.
One of the most popular topics refers to the field of healthcare and medicine. In this small section, we will discuss how to create a nursing paper on a college or university level. Start with an exposition. Continue by providing the main argument of the research work.
Next, come up with a powerful counter-argument and do not forget to include a worthy response to it - the introduction comes once you are done with these things.
Leave conclusion to the end. Many students forget to add a full list of references bibliography after the conclusion, so dedicate a single page to it ahead. An example of the philosophical nursing essay could start this way: According to the Texas Board of nursing , … continue.
Socrates argues that, because of the state's role as a provider of security, education, and various important social institutions such as marriage , the citizens of the state are its "offspring and servants"; and from this he concludes that citizens are subordinate to the state and its laws to such an extent that if a citizen ever disagrees with the state's laws or orders, he "must either persuade it or obey its orders," even if the latter amounts to suffering death.
The implication for his own case is clear: Socrates had tried to persuade the court of his innocence and of the injustice of his execution as detailed in the Apology , but he had failed; therefore, he argues, he must now obey the court and accept his death sentence--even though he still thinks that he is in the right on this matter.
The second, closely related claim, comes only a few paragraphs later, in 51e and Socrates there argues that by virtue of remaining in the state, a citizen enters into an implied contract with it to obey its commands. More precisely, the claim is again that a citizen who has a disagreement with the state must either persuade it that it is wrong, or else obey it.
In the voice of the personified laws: The implication, again, is that if one fails to persuade the state to change its mind, for whatever reason, then one must obey its orders. A citizen has no moral right to continue to resist the state, even if he is convinced that he is in the right and the state is in the wrong.
Now as mentioned above, these claims seem directly opposed to certain other claims Socrates makes. Most importantly, earlier in the Crito itself, Socrates had stressed that "one must never do wrong" 49b. Indeed, this serves as the driving principle behind the rest of his argument in the Crito.
But is this really consistent with maintaining that one must always obey the state, if one fails to persuade it that something it orders is wrong?
The obvious objection is that the state might well order one to do something wrong--e. In that case, Socrates' claim that one should never do anything wrong would entail refusing to do what the state orders-- even if one is unsuccessful in persuading the state that it is wrong.
Thus, Socrates' claim that one should never do wrong seems inconsistent with his claim that one must always obey the final orders of the state. Secondly, it might be objected that Socrates' view of the moral authority of the state is inconsistent both with what he did when ordered by the Thirty to capture Leon of Salamis for execution, and with what he says he'd do if ordered by the state to cease practicing philosophy both from the Apology.
When the Thirty ordered him to capture Leon, he refused, on the grounds that this would have been wrong unjust and impious.
Apology , 32c-d This seems to be a recognition that one is morally obligated or at least permitted to disobey the state when what it commands is wrong--even if one fails to persuade it of its wrongness. And similarly, Socrates makes clear that he would disobey the state and continue philosophizing if it were to order him to stop--again, on the grounds that it would be wrong for him to stop philosophizing recall that he saw philosophy as his life's mission, given him by the god.
Apology , 29c-d Again, this seems to contradict what he says in the Crito about the supreme moral authority of the state and its laws and orders. I believe, however, that it is possible to read the crucial passages about the authority of the state in the Crito in such a way as to render them consistent with Socrates' exhortation never to do wrong, and with his remarks about disobedience in the Apology.
To see this, it is necessary to distinguish first of all between two issues: With this distinction in mind, consider the following possible interpretations of Socrates' claim about the moral authority of the state in the Crito:. There are passages that might seem to suggest i e. Thus, a more charitable reading would interpret the passages about the moral authority of the state as referring implicitly to cases where the state does not require one to do anything unjust, but merely to endure something or perhaps to do something that is not itself unjust, such as rendering some political service.
If the passages are read in this way, we can interpret Socrates' claim as ii above. When he says that one must obey the state's final laws and orders, what he means is that one must do anything it tells one to do within the bounds of justice , and that one must endure anything it tells one to endure.
Thus, Socrates was not obligated to capture Leon of Salamis, and would not be obligated to cease philosophizing if ordered to, since that would be doing something wrong i. The latter is true, according to Socrates, even though the punishment is wrong; for by suffering it, he is not himself doing anything wrong, but only enduring something wrong.
This is perfectly consistent with Socrates' exhortation never to do anything wrong. Thus, what at first appears to be a blatant contradiction among Socrates' various claims is fairly easily remedied if we interpret the relevant passages in the Crito as making the claim in ii rather than the claim in i above. This interpretation is supported not only by the fact that it helps to reconcile Socrates' seemingly contradictory claims, but also by the fact that Socrates' examples of obedience to the state over one's own objections all involve having to endure something, rather than having to do something.
He speaks in Crito 51b, for example, of having to "endure in silence whatever it instructs you to endure, whether blows or bonds, and if it leads you into war to be wounded or killed, you must obey.
Therefore, it is consistent with the text to interpret him as making only the claim in ii, which is fully compatible with his claim that one must never do wrong, and with his claim that under certain conditions one should refuse to do something the state orders such as refusing to capture someone for an unjust execution, or refusing to cease carrying out your divine mission as long as you live.
As for the plausibility of Socrates' view, I believe that it is still overly demanding, even when qualified as in ii above.
Structuring a Philosophy Paper Philosophy assignments generally ask you to consider some thesis or argument, often a thesis or argument that has been presented by another philosopher (a thesis is argument, you may be asked to do one or more of the following: explain it, offer an argument in support of.
Philosophy paper. Help. anncou. Main. Similar Questions. Field: Reading homework help. Report Issue. Address the following in your paper: Mind/Body Dualism: Compare/contrast Cartesian rationalism and at least one version of empiricism. You may draw upon your analysis of the Cartesian Method in this week’s discussion .
It will also help to give your paper focus. In order to produce a good philosophy paper, it is first necessary to think very carefully and clearly about your topic. Unfortunately, your reader (likely your marker or instructor) has no access to those thoughts except by way of what actually ends up on the page. A philosophy paper consists of the reasoned defense of some claim Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss.
Avoid getting off on tangents that are not crucial to your topic, and avoid sweeping generalizations you can't support in the paper. In addition to the quality of exposition, one of the central things we look for in a philosophy . An essay on philosophy begins with a thesis statement which can be an introduction to a wider topic or can be a simple argument that you wish to elaborate in the essay. A thesis statement is essential in all kinds of custom essay papers because it is the starting point to your essay therefore it needs to be impressive enough to catch attention.