The abstract is the most crucial part of the report because anybody searching for your research on a database or in a journal will usually read only the abstract. Therefore, it must summarize your research, results and conclusions in less than words. Sometimes it is good to think of it as a sample of your research rather than a review ; it should inform the researcher that your article contains the information they need.
There are a few ideas on how to write your abstract but the best advice is that you look at some journals relevant to your research and try to format your abstract in a similar way. This section and is merely a breakdown of sections and subsections by page number. For a short and straightforward paper it may not be necessary to include a contents page.
This is not mandatory for a research paper. This section of your report is where you will document all the painstaking research into the background of your experiment. The main thing to bear in mind, when writing the introduction , is that a scientist who is unfamiliar with your exact subject matter may be reading the article.
It is important, therefore, to try and give a quick and condensed history of the research leading to your experiment, with correct citations. You should also give a little background on why you chose to do this particular experiment and what you expect to find. For this portion of your report you must describe the methods used when performing the experiment. This should include, if relevant, the location and times of sample collection, what equipment was utilized, and the techniques used.
The idea behind the methodology section is that another researcher can exactly replicate your experiments without having to guess what equipment and what techniques should be used. Scientific articles are peer reviewed and this includes the possibility that other researchers may try to replicate your results. There have been many high profile scientific breakthroughs over the years whose results were unable to be repeated; these experiments were disregarded. For field studies you should give an exact map reference and time as well as including a map in the appendix.
If you used complex machinery or computer programs in the course of your experiment, to avoid breaking the flow of your report, you should give only the main information and refer to the exact technical specifications in the appendix. These should be a quick synopsis of the facts, figures and statistical tests used to arrive at your final results.
You should try to avoid cluttering up your report and insert most of your raw data into the appendix. It is far better to stick with including only tables and graphs that show clearly the results.
Do not be tempted to insert large numbers of graphs and figures just for the sake of it; each figure and graph should be mentioned, referred to and discussed in the text. Try to avoid putting in tables and graphs showing the same information; select the type that shows your results most clearly.
It is usually preferable to use graphs and relegate the tables to the appendix because it is easier to show trends in graphical format.
Figures and graphs should be clear and occupy at least half a page; you are not a magazine editor trying to fit a small graph into an article. All such information must be numbered, as diagrams for graphs and illustrations, and figures for tables; they should be referred to by this number in the body of the report. You do not need to put the full breakdown of the calculations used for your statistical tests; most scientists hate statistics and are only interested in whether your results were significant or not.
Relegate the calculations to the appendix. The results section of your report should be neutral and you should avoid discussing your results or how they differed from or compared with what was expected.
This information belongs in the next section. This is the pivotal section of your hard work in obtaining and analyzing your results.
In your discussion you should seek to discuss your findings, and describe how they compared and differed from the results you expected. In a nutshell, you are trying to show whether your hypothesis was proved, not proved or inconclusive.
You must be extremely critical of yourself in this section; you will not get marked down for mistakes in experiment design or for poor results, only for not recognizing them. Everybody who has written a dissertation or thesis has had to give a presentation to a room full of fellow students, scientists and professors and give a quick synopsis.
These people will tear your report apart if you do not recognize its shortcomings and flaws. Very few experiments are per cent correct in their design and conception so it is not really important what your results were, only that you understand their significance. Usually you will have had some promising results and some that did not fit with what you expected.
Discuss why things may have gone wrong and what could be done to refine the results in future. Suggest what changes in experimental design might improve the results; there is no right or wrong in science, only progress.
Finally, you can discuss at the end ideas for further research, either refining the experiment or suggesting new areas. Even if your paper was a one off, somebody may come along and decide that they find your research interesting and that they would like to continue from where you left off. This is really just a more elaborate version of the abstract. In a few paragraphs you should summarize your findings. Your abstract will do most of this for you but, as long as you do not get carried away, especially for longer reports, it can help the reader absorb your findings a little more.
Include all of your direct references here, even if you only found a couple of sentences. In the case where somebody referred to an original source, reference that too, but if you did not manage to get hold of it, try to rewrite so that you will not have to reference or use "referred in"-citation. Here it is polite to acknowledge anybody who helped you with this report, although do not go overboard; it is not an Oscar speech. Your supervisor is a good start, as well as others who helped.
If a landowner gave you permission to take samples then it is good practice to acknowledge them and give them a summary of your results, if permitted. Appendices are very useful because they give you a place to dump raw data and calculations.
It is impossible to cope with a 10,word dissertation without learning how to write a detailed outline for a research paper.
It is shorter than a table of contents and does not have to specify the number of pages. Once you are done with the draft, present the draft of an outline for a paper to the teacher to get feedback at the initial stage of work.
How to write a thesis outline for a research paper using MLA? It is applied to the assignments written for the English Composition, History, Literature, and some other humanitarian classes. The primary MLA research paper outline is the draft. No need to include plenty of details when working on a draft but put the things in the correct order not to get lost in the middle of the writing process. An outline helps to determine the way a student will build other important sections such as Literature Review.
Will it appear in chronological or alphabetical sequence? Have a look at the offered example of an outline for a research paper after observing the details. Experts recommend titling the essay after the report is done. Check the possible alternative titles on the web — modern scientists have established various possible ideas in separate databases.
Try to come up with the original name for your project. Make the reader believe the given paper contains the useful information on the relevant problem and matters for the development of science. Add a contents page if the prompt tells to do it.
Painstake the study into the background of the experiment. Put yourself in the shoes of the potential reader and think about why this person would be interested in reading about a particular problem from cover to cover. Share the history of the study based on other related studies conducted before. Explain the reasons for choosing the specific topic examples and doing a particular experiment; include the things you were expecting to find during the process.
A hypothesis thesis statement should conclude the opening paragraph. To sum up, the introduction must have:. It makes sense this section talks about the methods tools, equipment, approaches, and other sources the scientists used to experiment.
The research papers are peer-reviewed; other people may want to join the experiment. Scientists often mix these 2 sections. While one lists the findings, another one provides a clear interpretation of each of the offered results. Write a brief synopsis of several basic elements facts, figures, and statistical exams depicted in the Results.
A raw data must go into the appendix. It is possible to include the tables, images, and graphs to explain the findings in-depth, but the detailed description of the visual elements should appear in the appendix.
Number the visual elements to reference them in the end. Seek to discuss the obtained results in the 2nd part of the combined section and tell whether they meet your expectations or not. It is fine to mention the errors in the experiment design, calculation, approaches, technology usage — it is important to explain why the things might have gone wrong.
The teacher wants to see this explanation to put a high score. A student has discussed the results by this section.
The broader your topic is, the more difficult it is to discuss the full details. This is why you should establish early on the scope and limitations of your paper which will provide the foundation for your research paper outline. Basically, your outline will constitute three main sections: the .
The outline structure is approximately the same whether you write a research outline on dreams or some topic distant from this one, like a research outline for PhD application. The structure is identical to the structure of the research paper itself.
What is an outline for a research paper and how to write an outline for a research paper? The primary thing is to provide a clear definition. An academic project outline is an action plan a student prepares not to get lost during the process of writing, and this piece reflects the main points of the text. If you plan to write for a specific journal, a good advice is to check the research paper outline of some of the articles to get a better idea on how to write your article. Here are a few outline samples.
A research paper outline is a helpful point-by-point plan, which makes your research paper writing easier. However, before proceeding to an outline you will have to take some pre-writing steps. They will be helpful in composing the best quality outline and, as a result, a great academic work. Research Paper Outline and Format. It is impossible to write a such a task without creating drafts and outlines. That is why you need to pay careful attention to the research paper outline, as it will greatly simplify your future work and make the process of creating an assignment much simpler.