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IGCSE History 0470 Past Papers

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❶Papermaking was diffused across the Islamic world, from where it was diffused further west into Europe. Between the 9th to early 12th centuries, libraries in Cairo, Baghdad, and Cordoba held collections larger than even the ones in China, and dwarfed those in Europe.

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History term papers are among the most commonly assigned exercises in research and writing at the college level. This site contains thousands of examples of history papers, reports, and essays ready to download that can help any student start or finish their own!

Whether you are writing about colonial history, the civil war, American presidents, or ANY other topic relevant to U. Or you may have a very specific topic matter, that one of well-trained academic writers with over 20 years of research and writing experience can help you with. Our highly qualified team of research writers have all graduated from a U.

They have researched and written thousands of model papers per year since , making us the most qualified company to assist you academically on-line. The hammers were raised by their heads by cams fixed to a waterwheel's axle made from a large tree trunk. In the Americas, archaeological evidence indicates that a similar bark-paper writing material was used by the Mayans no later than the 5th century AD. The paper is created by boiling and pounding the inner bark of trees, until the material becomes suitable for art and writing.

These materials made from pounded reeds and bark are technically not true paper , which is made from pulp, rags, and fibers of plants and cellulose. European papermaking spread to the Americas first in Mexico by and then in Philadelphia by The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Chinese and Muslim papermakers. However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century. Donald Hill has identified a possible reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand , in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni , but concludes that the passage is "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that it refers to a water-powered paper mill.

Clear evidence of a water-powered paper mill dates to in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. The first paper mill north of the Alps was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in ; it is later depicted in the lavishly illustrated Nuremberg Chronicle. Before the industrialisation of the paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags.

The rags were from hemp , linen and cotton. It was not until the introduction of wood pulp in that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers.

Although cheaper than vellum, paper remained expensive, at least in book-sized quantities, through the centuries, until the advent of steam-driven paper making machines in the 19th century, which could make paper with fibres from wood pulp.

Although older machines predated it, the Fourdrinier papermaking machine became the basis for most modern papermaking. Nicholas Louis Robert of Essonnes , France , was granted a patent for a continuous paper making machine in At the time he was working for Leger Didot with whom he quarrelled over the ownership of the invention.

Didot sent his brother-in-law, John Gamble, to meet Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier , stationers of London , who agreed to finance the project.

Gamble was granted British patent on 20 October With the help particularly of Bryan Donkin , a skilled and ingenious mechanic, an improved version of the Robert original was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill , Hertfordshire , in , followed by another in A third machine was installed at the Fourdriniers' own mill at Two Waters.

The Fourdriniers also bought a mill at St Neots intending to install two machines there and the process and machines continued to develop. However, experiments with wood showed no real results in the late 18th century and at the start of the 19th century. By , Matthias Koops in London, England further investigated the idea of using wood to make paper, and in he wrote and published a book titled Historical account of the substances which have been used to describe events, and to convey ideas, from the earliest date, to the invention of paper.

No pages were fabricated using the pulping method from either rags or wood. He received financial support from the royal family to make his printing machines and acquire the materials and infrastructure needed to start his printing business.

But his enterprise was short lived. Only a few years following his first and only printed book the one he wrote and printed , he went bankrupt. The book was very well done strong and had a fine appearance , but it was very costly. Then in the s and s, two men on two different continents took up the challenge, but from a totally new perspective.

Both Friedrich Gottlob Keller and Charles Fenerty began experiments with wood but using the same technique used in paper making; instead of pulping rags, they thought about pulping wood. And at about the same time, by mid, they announced their findings. They invented a machine which extracted the fibres from wood exactly as with rags and made paper from it.

Charles Fenerty also bleached the pulp so that the paper was white. This started a new era for paper making. By the end of the 19th-century almost all printers in the western world were using wood in lieu of rags to make paper.

Together with the invention of the practical fountain pen and the mass-produced pencil of the same period, and in conjunction with the advent of the steam driven rotary printing press , wood based paper caused a major transformation of the 19th century economy and society in industrialized countries.

With the introduction of cheaper paper, schoolbooks, fiction, non-fiction, and newspapers became gradually available by Cheap wood based paper also meant that keeping personal diaries or writing letters became possible and so, by , the clerk , or writer, ceased to be a high-status job.

The original wood-based paper was acidic due to the use of alum and more prone to disintegrate over time, through processes known as slow fires. Documents written on more expensive rag paper were more stable.

Mass-market paperback books still use these cheaper mechanical papers see below , but book publishers can now use acid-free paper for hardback and trade paperback books. Determining the provenance of paper is a complex process that can be done in a variety of ways.

The easiest way is using a known sheet of paper as an exemplar. Using known sheets can produce an exact identification. Next, comparing watermarks with those contained in catalogs or trade listings can yield useful results. Inspecting the surface can also determine age and location by looking for distinct marks from the production process. Chemical and fiber analysis can be used to establish date of creation and perhaps location. It has also become universal to talk of paper "mills" even of such mills at Fez!

All our evidence points to non-hydraulic hand production, however, at springs away from rivers which it could pollute. European papermaking differed from its precursors in the mechanization of the process and in the application of water power.

Gimpel goes on to say: Paper had traveled nearly halfway around the world, but no culture or civilization on its route had tried to mechanize its manufacture. Indeed, Muslim authors in general call any "paper manufactory" a wiraqah — not a "mill" tahun. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Paper history. The Invention of Printing. A History of Graphic Design.

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cie igcse History past papers; igcse History past papers; History ; igcse History question papers; igcse History marking schemes; igcse History syllabus; History grade thresholds; Updates section will be maintained from onward: 24/8/ March and May June History Past Papers of CIE IGCSE are available.

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A Level History Past Papers Get latest Cambridge A Level History Past Papers, Marking Schemes, Specimen Papers, Examiner Reports and Grade Thresholds. Our A Level History Past Papers section is uploaded with the latest A Level History May / June Past Paper. You can find all CIE History IGCSE () Paper 1 past papers and mark schemes below: June MS - Paper 1 CIE History IGCSE; June QP - Paper 1 CIE History IGCSE.

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How to Use IB History Past Papers. Each full IB History practice exam will take you hours for SL or 5 hours for HL, so you need to get the most out of each test. Some pointers for your practice: Pointer . The word "paper" is etymologically derived from papyrus, Ancient Greek for the Cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant which was used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean societies for writing long before paper was used in China.