Grammatically, a new plural marker of - o developed. A considerable Gujarati-speaking population exists in North America , most particularly in the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the Greater Toronto Area , which have over , speakers and over 75, speakers, respectively, but also throughout the major metropolitan areas of the United States and Canada.
According to the census, Gujarati is the seventeenth most spoken language in the Greater Toronto Area, and the fourth most spoken South Asian language after Hindi-Urdu , Punjabi and Tamil. The UK has over , speakers, many of them situated in the London area, especially in North West London, but also in Birmingham , Manchester , and in Leicester , Coventry , Bradford and the former mill towns within Lancashire.
A portion of these numbers consists of East African Gujaratis who, under increasing discrimination and policies of Africanisation in their newly independent resident countries especially Uganda , where Idi Amin expelled 50, Asians , were left with uncertain futures and citizenships. Most, with British passports , settled in the UK. Gujarati parents in the diaspora are not comfortable with the possibility of their language not surviving them.
Besides being spoken by the Gujarati people , non-Gujarati residents of and migrants to the state of Gujarat also count as speakers, among them the Kutchis as a literary language ,  the Parsis adopted as a mother tongue , and Hindu Sindhi refugees from Pakistan.
Gujarati is one of the twenty-two official languages and fourteen regional languages of India. Gujarati is recognized and taught as a minority language in the states of Rajasthan , Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra , and Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Delhi. According to British historian and philologist William Tisdall , who was an early scholar of Gujarati grammar , three major varieties of Gujarati exist: However, Gujarati has undergone contemporary reclassification with respect to the widespread regional differences in vocabulary and phrasing; notwithstanding the number of poorly attested dialects and regional variations in naming.
Kutchi is often referred to as a dialect of Gujarati, but most linguists consider it closer to Sindhi. In addition, a mixture between Sindhi, Gujarati, and Kutchi called Memoni is related to Gujarati, albeit distantly. Furthermore, words used by the native languages of areas where the Gujarati people have become a diaspora community, such as East Africa Swahili , have become loanwords in local dialects of Gujarati. It is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. Gujarati and closely related languages, including Kutchi and Parkari Koli , can be written in the Arabic or Persian scripts.
This is traditionally done by many in Gujarat's Kutch district. These are the three general categories of words in modern Indo-Aryan: Gujarati is a modern Indo-Aryan language descended from Sanskrit old Indo-Aryan , and this category pertains exactly to that: Thus the "that" in "of the nature of that" refers to Sanskrit. They tend to be non-technical, everyday, crucial words; part of the spoken vernacular. Below is a table of a few Gujarati tadbhav words and their Old Indo-Aryan sources:.
While Sanskrit eventually stopped being spoken vernacularly, in that it changed into Middle Indo-Aryan , it was nonetheless standardized and retained as a literary and liturgical language for long after.
This category consists of these borrowed words of more or less pure Sanskrit character. They serve to enrich Gujarati and modern Indo-Aryan in its formal, technical, and religious vocabulary. They are recognizable by their Sanskrit inflections and markings; they are thus often treated as a separate grammatical category unto themselves. Many old tatsam words have changed their meanings or have had their meanings adopted for modern times.
In addition to this are neologisms , often being calques. So, while having unique tadbhav sets, modern IA languages have a common, higher tatsam pool. Also, tatsam s and their derived tadbhav s can also co-exist in a language; sometimes of no consequence and at other times with differences in meaning:.
The former consists mainly of Persian , Arabic , and English, with trace elements of Portuguese and Turkish. While the phenomenon of English loanwords is relatively new, Perso-Arabic has a longer history behind it. Both English and Perso-Arabic influences are quite nationwide phenomena, in a way paralleling tatsam as a common vocabulary set or bank. What's more is how, beyond a transposition into general Indo-Aryan, the Perso-Arabic set has also been assimilated in a manner characteristic and relevant to the specific Indo-Aryan language it is being used in, bringing to mind tadbhav.
India was ruled for many a century by Persian-speaking Muslims , amongst the most notable being the Turko - Afghan Delhi Sultanate , and the Turco-Mongol Mughal dynasty. As a consequence Indian languages were changed greatly, with the large scale entry of Persian and its many Arabic loans into the Gujarati lexicon. One fundamental adoption was Persian's conjunction "that", ke. Also, while tatsam or Sanskrit is etymologically continuous to Gujarati, it is essentially of a differing grammar or language , and that in comparison while Perso-Arabic is etymologically foreign, it has been in certain instances and to varying degrees grammatically indigenized.
Owing to centuries of situation and the end of Persian education and power, 1 Perso-Arabic loans are quite unlikely to be thought of or known as loans, and 2 more importantly, these loans have often been Gujarati-ized. The last three are definite part and parcel. Below is a table displaying a number of these loans. Lastly, Persian, being part of the Indo-Iranian language family as Sanskrit and Gujarati are, met up in some instances with its cognates: We take even the tightest deadline as a challenge and strive to produce the best papers in the shortest amount of time.
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Gujarati Essay - રક્ષાબંધન બુધવાર,ઑગસ્ટ 22, ભારત તહેવારોનો દેશ છે.
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