The hypothesis of polygenic inheritance of IDDM suggests that diabetes is caused from two mutant genes or two groups of genes that have a recessive inherited predisposition to autoimmune lesions of the insular apparatus or increased sensitivity of B cells to viral antigens or attenuated antiviral immunity. Genetic susceptibility is linked with particular genes of HLA systems, which are considered markers of such a predisposition.
Patients with a genetic predisposition to IDDM have an altered response to environmental factors. They have weakened antiviral immunity, and they are extremely susceptible to cytotoxic damage to the B cells by viruses and chemical agents. Viral infection may be a factor that provokes the development of IDDM. The most common occurrence of IDDM clinically is preceded by the following viral infections: The role of viral infection is confirmed by seasonality in the incidence of IDDM development often, the first diagnosed cases of IDDM among children occur in autumn and winter months, with a peak incidence in October and January , the detection of high titers of antibodies to the virus in the blood of patients with IDDM, and the detection by immunofluorescent methods for studying viral particles in the islets of Langerhans in people who have died of IDDM.
The role of viral infections in the development of IDDM is confirmed in experimental studies. Viral infections among individuals with a genetic predisposition to IDDM are involved in the development of the disease as follows:. First stage — a genetic predisposition, due to the presence of certain antigens in the HLA system, as well as genes of chromosomes 11 and Second stage — the initiation of the autoimmune process in islands of B cells influenced with viruses, cytotoxic agents and any other unknown factors.
A crucial point in this step is the expression of B cells HLA-DR-antigen and glutamic acid, and therefore, they become autoantigens that cause the development of autoimmune response reactions.
Third stage — the stage of the active immunological process with formation of antibodies to B cells, insulin and autoimmune insulitis development. Fourth stage — the progressive reduction of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose 1-phase secretion of insulin.
Fifth stage — clinical diabetes the manifestation of diabetes. Its length depends on the severity and degree of B cell damage, their ability to regenerate, and the level of residual insulin secretion, as well as the severity and frequency of related viral infections.
Sixth stage — the complete destruction of b-cells, and a complete lack of insulin secretion and C-peptide. Clinical signs of diabetes form and insulin treatment becomes necessary again. The provided diabetes essay sample is a perfect example of an academic paper that should be written by students. Nevertheless, we should warn you that the entirety of this text or its parts cannot be used in your own paper.
The consequence of such an action is that your mentor may consider that your work is plagiarism. The person initially becomes resistant towards responding to the presence of insulin in blood. This result in fluctuation of blood glucose level from the normal value for certain period of time and when the condition persists, diabetes is said to have developed. Its history demonstrates that its signs and symptoms are not distinctively observed; however,…… [Read More]. Exercise and Diet in the Treatment of Diabetes.
Diabetes The pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes is found in the way the body's relationship with insulin. Either the body produces too little of it to meet the body's own needs or else there is a resistance to the insulin that the body has developed which makes the insulin unable to do what it should -- thus there could be enough insulin in the body, it is just that cells in the body do not respond to it. The cause is due to "a combination of genetic factors related to impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance" and impacts from external factors "such as obesity," inadequate exercise, aging, etc.
Wilmot and Idris show that there is an age continuum risk associated with separating Type 2 diabetes diagnosis onsets into two separate categories -- pediatric under 20 years of age and adult over They assert that…… [Read More]. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there is a wide prevalence of a red meat and carbohydrate-intensive diet among Saudis.
Investigating the dietary habits of Saudis and the onset of hypertension and diabetes type 2 among adults aged will be helpful in establishing a preventive medicine…… [Read More].
Psychological Influence of Diabetes the National Diabetes. Psychological Influence of Diabetes Diabetes The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health.
The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers. Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2.
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose Penckofer et. If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal.
The illness may, however, be treated by administration…… [Read More]. Why as Obesity and Diabetes Increased. In spite of the fact that technology and medical science have experienced significant success in the recent decades, maladies like diabetes and obesity are increasing in prevalence in developed countries. This provides society with a dilemma, considering that most people fail to understand that they are actually exposed to these diseases. Moreover, these individuals are unacquainted with basic actions that they can perform in order to prevent diabetes and obesity.
Even if people have access to information that can assist them in combating a great deal of diseases, the fact that they express indifference in regard to particular aspects of their health reflects negatively on their condition. When considering that diabetes and obesity occur more frequently in developed countries makes it possible for the masses to comprehend that certain lifestyles promoted in these areas are essential in increasing the number of individuals who suffer.
What is…… [Read More]. Epidemiology and Type II Diabetes In order to correct or avoid a medical condition, especially one that is preventable, a person has to have a good understanding of what is causing that condition and how to prevent or reverse it in order to promote optimum health. However, one cannot work on preventing a condition without examining the literature on it, in an effort to determine what actually works and what does not.
There are many "cures" and "remedies" for a number of conditions, and a significant number of those remedies and cures are not helpful. Some may actually be dangerous, so it is very important to understand the true nature of what is being offered to a person or a community when it comes to remaining or becoming healthy. Here, type II diabetes will be discussed in order to determine how to use the literature review and other data so…… [Read More].
Depression and Diabetes Effects of Depression and. Depression and Diabetes Effects of Depression and Diabetes on Patients Depression is an illness involving the body, thinking ability and mood. It has adverse effects on the eating habits, feelings and even the affected experience sleeping difficulties. Most of the people affected include the middle age that undergo stressful endeavors including trouble adjusting to new working environments, maintaining relationships among others.
Most of those affected, but are beyond the middle age get depressed due to many reasons, including the most common which is security fears. Security in this perspective includes wealth and family. Diabetes, on the other hand, is a metabolic disorder whose symptoms include excessive discharge of urine and persistent thirst.
According to Thesaurus , it is mainly caused by insufficient production of insulin, leading to high glucose or sugar levels in the body. The disease is polygenic genetically inherited. The most prone to this disease include those leading…… [Read More].
Acute Complications Diabetes the Acute. Ketoacidosis occurs when patients with Type 1 diabetes do not take their insulin shots or when patients with Type 2 diabetes develop ancillary complications such as chest or urinary tract infections.
Therefore, the condition can be prevented with proper care and effective monitoring of blood sugar levels. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma HHNK results from an excess concentration of sugar in the blood, which occurs mostly in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
The onset of HHNK occurs gradually when patients do not take their medications or when they develop other complications or are under stress. Symptoms include tiredness, increased thirst, increased urination, and weight loss. The extreme fatigue may cause the patient to become unconscious, which is why the condition is a type of coma. Preventing HHNK is a matter of regulating blood sugar levels, through medications and insulin. Works Cited Complications of Diabetes. Business Case Analysis for Diabetes.
Requiring the patient to come to the Clinic or the doctor's office for regular follow-up visits is also an expensive way to ensure compliance. While some office and clinic visits are necessary and desirable, extending the it tools available to at-home diabetes monitoring can extend the expertise of the clinic at a relatively low cost, allowing the Clinic to concentrate its resources on patients who become seriously ill Eli Lilly, Safety The technology aids in effective communication among staff and members The Clinic has made great strides, and can be regarded as a pioneer in preparing and communicating patient records.
It has also made a reputation through the eClinic initiative in making records available to patients. This initiative for diabetes becomes an extension of the work done earlier, and has many of the same benefits: Nutrition Diabetes Affects About Hypoglycemia is a condition of low blood sugar, caused by the body's inappropriate metabolism of glucose and insulin. Diabetics who experience temporary hypoglycemia can remedy the problem by ingesting some simple sugars to immediately reintroduce glucose into the bloodstream.
A proper diet for diabetics is one that reduces intake of refined sugars, reduces sodium, and in many cases, helps the person lose weight. Most adults who acquire Type 2 Diabetes have poor lifestyle habits.
Type 2 Diabetes is caused by obesity and poor nutrition even if some individuals are at a greater risk for developing the disease. Any person who might be at risk for diabetes should learn proper eating habits as early as possible in their life. Becoming overweight or obese is a difficult process to reverse and may lead to other health problems like heart disease. Persons who are overweight but who are willing to change their eating…… [Read More]. Gestational Diabetes in African-American Females.
Gestational Diabetes is a diagnosis of diabetes during pregnancy. This diagnosis is usually obtained about the 24th week of pregnancy after taking a blood glucose test. A diagnosis of gestational diabetes does not mean the individual is going to become diabetic after pregnancy or was diabetic prior to pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is usually caused by the imbalance of hormones during pregnancy, along with other biological factors such as a decrease in pancreatic production of insulin.
I will discuss how the diagnosis is obtained, how it is treated, medication that can be used, ethical and cultural affiliation with gestational diabetes.
Finally I will also discuss some controversies surrounding this disease and how it impacts African-American females. What is Gestational Diabetes? Elderly Population With Diabetes. Definition and Description Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and factors to health conditions in particular populations and its application to the control of these health conditions NCCDPHP, The shortest description of the work of epidemiologists is that they count and compare data of cases of disease or injuries in a given population.
Then they compare these data with those of another or other populations. From the comparison, they form inferences on patterns in determining if a certain problem exists.
If and when they infer that there is a problem, they use the gathered data to determine the cause, the modes of transmission, probable factors of susceptibility, exposure or risk and other potential environmental factors. What a health care practitioner does to an individual patient, an epidemiologist does to an entire population. Both of them test their respective hypotheses…… [Read More]. Medicare Diabetes Prevention Act of. While these programs will probably provide free or nearly-free diabetes preventive services to a large number of individuals, most underserved patients will not benefit from these programs.
As of , 43 states covered the expense of screening Medicaid patients for diabetes, but only 13 states provided reimbursement for obesity preventive services. This suggests that states are willing to pay for screening, but not preventive services like lifestyle interventions; however, if only a few states implement DPPs for Medicaid recipients, this will provide a proof-of-principle experiment in a real-world setting and establish the overall healthcare savings such programs can…… [Read More].
Health Gestational Diabetes the Purpose. Another author notes, "African-American women are at an increased risk for developing gestational diabetes, experts say. Much like other forms of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects the way your body uses blood sugar glucose. Women suffering from gestational diabetes are also more prone to suffer from toxemia, as well. Another writer states, "Compared with women who don't have diabetes, women with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop toxemia, a disorder marked by hypertension, protein in the urine, swelling, headache, and visual disturbances" Meadows, , p.
Exercise has proven to help remove the risk of gestational diabetes in some women, especially those who are overweight when they become pregnant.
Fortunately, for the women who find themselves suffering from gestational diabetes, there are ways to control or manage the disease. Gestational diabetes…… [Read More]. Many of the same issues that arise in regards to diabetes, also apply to control of obesity as well Tilghman, It has been adapted for use in older African-American women that have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in rural areas of the Southeastern United States. These findings were derived from a series of pilot studies that indicated key symptoms and their affects on the lives of women with diabetes Skelly, A.
The study by Skelly and associates included three primary strategies of self-care for diabetes. These included physiologic Medical , behavioral Self-care practices , and sociopsychological coping, stress reduction, etc.
Outcomes were measured by monitoring metabolic control, symptom distress, and the patient's self-reported quality of life as related to diabetes. It was found…… [Read More]. Reducing Readmission for Diabetes Patients. Quality Improvement Project Diabetes -- Chronic Condition Background Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Risk factors for type 1 diabetes Risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes Risk factors for gestational diabetes The Rationale for Selection The Target Population Intervention Plans Target Goals It has been estimated that in New York there is roughly two million people, or over twelve percent of the population, that have diabetes; furthermore, of this population, over half a million people have the condition but are not aware that they have it American Diabetes Association, N.
It is further estimated that nearly five and a half million people, or over a third of the population, have prediabetes.
Diabetes and diabetes-associated cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death in the region accounting for roughly two-thirds of the deaths and the rates of diabetes has lead this trend to be referred to as the…… [Read More]. There is an educational deficit in the clinic where I previously worked regarding the positive effect that an all-natural, organic diet consisting of locally produced foods can have on a patient with diabetes.
Most patients believe that if their pancreas is not producing enough insulin that they need to receive insulin injections. This is the conventional attitude because of the widespread use of this method to treat the disease. Yet there are numerous studies that link obesity to diabetes and even some studies that show…… [Read More]. Healthy People and Diabetes Diabetes is a community health problem that is also a Healthy People priority area.
Tabish has cited it as a growing epidemic occurring all over the world. Because diabetes has been linked to obesity, poor diet and lack of exercise, it is reasonable to arrive at the conclusion that if people ate better and exercised more the rising spread of diabetes could be reversed. This is the contention of researchers such as Davis and Cunninghamm-Myrie, Theall, Younger et al.
In short, diabetes is impacting everyone. All who consume "fast food" type of diets are at risk of developing diabetes according to these studies. The public health leadership problem related to this health issue is that public health leaders appear all too willing to simply treat the symptoms of diabetes instead of attacking the causes of the disease.
Better leadership in this…… [Read More]. Associations between neighborhood effects and physical activity, obesity, and diabetes: The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68 9: Why was the study done? Was there a clear explanation of the purpose of the study and, if so, what was it? This study was conducted in order to provide insight into the effect of "neighborhood disorder, perceived neighborhood safety," and the existence of ready access to recreational facilities on the incidence of three variables -- physical activity, obesity and Type 2 diabetes p.
Thus, there was a clear indication and explanation of the purpose of the study and what it entailed. Essentially, this study set out to show whether there was a relationship between neighborhood safety or the perception of safety and physical activity among the inhabitants of that community or lack thereof, which would result…… [Read More].
Hoem based diabetes managemnt. A randomized, controlled trial. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Please enter your password. Get instant access to over , papers. FULL access to essays database. If you cannot find any suitable paper on our site, which happens very rarely, you can always order custom written paper which will be written from scratch by our professional writers and deliver to you on requested time.
Your research paper is written by certified writers Your requirements and targets are always met You are able to control the progress of your writing assigment You get a chance to become an excellent student! Diabetes Most that do not know much about the disease would suspect there was only one type when there are 3 forms of diabetes.
Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational diabetes are the three most common cases the most diabetes patients are diagnosed with
Older aged people are affected by Type 2 diabetes. This essay will also briefly describes about the Ottawa Charter and one of the action areas of it: Develop Personal Skills to address the health issue, Type 2 diabetes, in older aged people.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. Diabetes mellitus is where the body cells cannot use glucose properly for lack of or resistance to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Diabetes can lead to serious complications over time if left untreated.
Type 2 diabetes is a very serious disease with many life threatening consequences, but if it is manage properly through preventative measures, diabetics can live a normal life. According to (Diabetes UK ) Type 2 diabetes can remain undetected for ten years or more and 50 per cent of people show signs of complications when diagnosed. Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Type II Diabetes Type II diabetes is a severe form of diabetes caused by inadequate production of insulin and resulting in anomalous metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Diabetes usually appears in children and slowly progresses by the increase of sugar levels in the blood stream and urine.
In the following essay I will be talking about type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is on the increase and is now a very prominent public health issue. I have a great interest in the metabolic disease as both my maternal and paternal grandparents suffered from it. Nov 20, · Essay on Pathophysiology: Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is metabolic disorder characterized by the high level of hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. This is a serious health problems that undermines the quality of life of patients, may trigger serious complications and eventually result in the death of patients.5/5(1).