The most common ages for most of the cultures are between the ages of four and eight. Sometimes the girls undergo this operation by themselves, but most of the time it is done with a group of close girls. An example would be sisters or other close relatives or neighbors, or is some cultures it is done on a whole group of girls in the community that are the same age Female Genital Mutilation.
The procedure can be carried out in a couple of different places, and a couple of different people. It may be carried out in the girl's home, or the home of a relative or neighbor. It may also be done in a health center. Different cultures designate different people to carry out this ceremony. These people range from older women, a traditional midwife, the community healer, a barber, or a qualified midwife or doctor Female Genital Mutilation. The tools that are used in doing this operation vary, once again on where the procedure is being done, and on what the community has been doing for years.
They are usually performed with special knives. In Mali they use a saw-toothed knife Cutting the Rose. The procedure is also done with razor blades like the ones the tribes of Sudan use, which they call a Moos el Shurfa Cutting the Rose. Cultures also have been know to use objects such as glass or scissors, and on extremely rare occasions people have been reported of using sharp stones, burning the clitoris off, or using sharp fingernails to pluck out the clitoris of babies in some areas of Gambia Cutting the Rose.
There are many disadvantages to this procedure as one may already have been thinking while reading this paper. There are physical side effects associated with this procedure. The most severe is death. While the female is undergoes this procedure there is pain, because in most of the societies that this is taking place, the people are not very well developed, therefore they do not know of thing like anesthesia.
Also associated with the procedure are shock, hemorrhage, and damage to the organs surrounding the clitoris and labia Female Genital Mutilation. Dear Sir, With Regard to your recent coverage of female circumcision, while in Malawi a couple of months ago I came across the story of a fourteen year-old girl of the Yao tribe tat inhabits land in the southern end of the country. She was diagnosed HIV-positive although she was a virgin. Blame was laid on the fact that during tribal circumcision the same razor would be used on any number of children at the same time.
The solution the chief offered to take up was that in future each child was to bring its own razor Cutting the Rose. That passage bring me to the point that since the operators do many circumcisions at one time there is a very large likelihood that the poor girls will contract horrible diseases. These illnesses certainly mean death, because of the lack of adequate mediation available to them. Rosemary Mburu, A Kenyan gynecologist has estimated that 15 per cent of all circumcised females dies of bleeding or infections, and other reports show that out of every 1, females that undergo this procedure 70 women die as a result.
As there are those are all of the short-term effects of female circumcision, there are also problems that occur in the long-term. The most common complication of female circumcision is the lack of sensation during sexual intercourse due to the removal of the clitoral gland and the labia minora Cutting the Rose. Further complication can also occur after the procedure is done some of the women's vaginas become narrower than they were meant to be.
This is because there is scar tissue that forms, because of accidental cuts into the vaginal wall Cutting the Rose. This in turn leads to painful menstruation, or otherwise referred to as dysmenorrhoea. This happens because the menstrual blood cannot flow freely.
Since the vaginal hole is so small this also leads to painful intercourse. Another long-term condition that may occur is a tumor that is composed of nerve tissue, at the point of section of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. This also leads to excruciating pain for the female that has undergone this procedure. There are also psychological effects that occur in women that have had this procedure done to them. Several women that have been interviewed say that because this mutilation has been done to them, they have feeling of anxiety, terror, humiliation, and betrayal to the people that have done this to them Female Genital Mutilation.
People that are pro female circumcision say that there is nothing wrong at all with this practice; in fact, they actually praise it. Carla Obermeyer, a medial anthropologist and epidemiologist at Harvard University, published a comprehensive review of the literature on female genital surgeries in Africa. She concluded that the claims of anti-FGM movements are highly exaggerated and do not match reality. By looking at scholarly articles she found that most of the publications had no hard evidence, they were all critical articles by people that just did not like the procedure practiced What about Female Genital Mutilation.
Tribes in Africa like the Okiek do not talk about female circumcision in terms of reducing sexual pleasure or desire, but they talk about it in terms of cleanliness, beauty and adulthood What about Female Genital Mutilation.
Another tribe called the Kikuyu assured Scientist Robert Edgerton that women that are circumcised continue to be orgasmic, and actually enjoy sexual intercourse. Studies also have been conducted in rural and urban Egyptian women that have had the operation done on them.
Out of fifty women that were interviewed only two of them resented that they have been circumcised. There are other notable facts about this cultural practice.
For one thing, most African women do not think about circumcision in human-rights terms. Women who endorse female circumcision typically argue that it is an import part of their cultural heritage or their religion, while women who do not endorse the practice typically argue that it is not permitted by their cultural heritage or their religion. It seems like the people that are not familiar with this ritual always try to knock it down without really knowing what is actually being done.
On the other hand people that live in the societies where it is practiced embrace the event. Another survey developed by The Health department asked 3, if they were circumcised. Of the women that were circumcised 96 percent of them said that they had or would have their daughters circumcised.
They also asked if they women favored the continuation of the practice, and an astonishing 90 percent of circumcised women said that they would favor continuation of the ritual Shweder Based on the female cultures like in Somalia and in Sudan, it is believed by women that their genital alterations actually improve their bodies.
They say that the alterations make them more beautiful, more feminine, more civilized, and much more honorable Shweder They are more beautiful because their bodies are made smooth, and the flesh that they used to have is thought of as being ugly and odious.
That is how people feel about the male penis in the United States. These "operations" are done with special knives, razor blades, scissors or pieces of glass and stone. Sometimes, slices of the labia majora are removed. The main reasons given for the continuation of this practice are custom and tradition. In societies where FGM is practised, a girl is not considered an adult or a complete woman until she goes through the "operation".
Some societies believe that all persons are hermaphroditic and the removal of the clitoris makes the female a "pure woman". It arises from the stereotypical perception of women as the principal guardians of sexual morality, but with uncontrolled sexual urges. A husband may reject a woman who has not gone through the "operation". Health reasons are also put forward as justifications for FGM.
Unmutilated women are considered unclean. It is believed that FGM enhances fertility. It is considered that the clitoris is poisonous and that it could prick the man or kill a baby at childbirth. Even though FGM pre? Despite such justifications, the reality is that FGM is a practice that has many negative consequences.
Owing to the unhygienic circumstances in which it is carried out, there are many short? The cycle of pain continues when cutting and restitching is carried out to accommodate sexual intimacy and childbirth.
During the colonial period, attempts were made to eradicate FGM. Christian missionaries in the Sudan tried to uproot the practice by including a message against FGM in their medical education programmes.
When this was not successful, the British Colonial Government resorted to legislation in Under the law, infibulation was made unlawful. But this did not stop the practice; rather it forced the families to have the procedure done in secret. As a result, individual countries began to pass legislation that either regulated or banned FGM. Kenya condemned FGM in and passed formal legislation banning it in Sweden was one of the first countries specifically to condemn FGM.
It banned health professionals from performing the operation in The Special Rapporteur on violence against women, in her preliminary report, recognized FGM as a form of violence against women that requires concerted international and national action for its eradication. In many countries in Africa, there now exist strong indigenous movements aimed at stopping the practice of female genital mutilation.
In Senegal, religious leaders have gone on village-to-village pilgrimages to stop the practice.
- Female Genital Mutilation in Africa ital Mutilation in Sudan In the country of Sudan, in Northern Africa, there is a procedure that is tradition and is performed on most women called female genital mutilation, or FGM, which used to be known as female circumcision.
Female Genital Mutilation essays Female genital mutilation is a horrendous injustice that occurs everyday in this world. Female genital mutilation is wrong for several reasons. It is wrong because women can experience physical health consequences, psychological health consequences and it .
Functionalism can best be used to describe Female Genital Mutilation due to the role each group plays in their society. Functionalism is “a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium” (Henslin ). Essay on Female Genital Mutilation Two million girls are subjected to female genital mutilation in the name of tradition every year (Win News). That is a large amount of females that undergo this procedure.
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female circumcision, is a traumatic procedure performed on women and young girls, primarily in Eastern parts of the world. Included: medical essay content. Preview text: Two million girls are subjected to female genital mutilation in the name of tradition every year (Win News). That is a large amount of females that undergo this procedure. Just like all stories there are two sides to why people do what they do. To Am.