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Citation Styles: Main

Citation Style Guides at Willamette University

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How to Format an in Text Citation

Citation–Sequence and Citation–Name
Format and style of main manuscript
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If the journal does not have a volume or issue number, use the issue date , issue number of Volume and page numbers. A journal article citation in this style should look as follows:.

Smith J, Canton EM. Weight-based administration of dalteparin in obese patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. Works appear in the same order as used in the manuscript. Anthony Smith began writing for Demand Studios in May of and has since written over articles for them. He also writes for "The College Baseball Newsletter.

Use our citation tool to automatically generate your bibliography for any website. How to Cite a Professor's PowerPoint. How to Cite Articles From Newsweek. How to Cite a Scientific Journal Article. This might lead to long sentences, with citations immediately following the topics with which those sources are associated:. Although "target" ranges of MUN have been proposed Hof et al.

If you name your author in the sentence near the citation, you do not need to repeat that name in the citation itself:. In this study we develop a conceptual model for understanding the linkages between aquatic habitats and the surrounding terrestrial landscape, building on ideas presented by Polis and Hurd and Gasith and Hasler who examined spatial linkages between islands and the surrounding sea and terrestrial organic inputs into lakes, respectively.

When citing an organization, corporation, or university as an author, use an abbreviation or acronym to avoid interrupting your text with a long citation. Holstein dairy cows in the Dairy Herd Improvement program born in compared to had a percent-greater milk yield 26, pounds vs. Trend in milk BV for Holstein [Internet]. Secondary citations refer to material that you have not seen in its original form but rather have obtained from another document that cited the original source.

In the edition of the CSE Manual , secondary citations are not listed as a valid form of citation. Instead, find and cite the original source. Although CSE provides rules for how to quote or excerpt sources, in practice almost no scientists publishing in journals that use CSE documentation choose to quote sources. Instead, these authors paraphrase or simply cite authors. When you quote or excerpt a source, include an in-text reference to help your reader see what source you are quoting from.

The seventh edition of the CSE Manual does not provide specific rules for identifying the page number or other location information for that source. The below examples demonstrate how journals adapt CSE's guidelines to include page numbers after the year of publication:. Farmers participating in these knowledge networks, Hassanein writes, "challenged the power relations in agricultural knowledge production and distribution by relying on their own and members' experiential knowledge" Hassanein , Similarly, Hayward, Simpson, and Wood Put the sources in chronological order from oldest to most recent and alphabetically if published in the same year.

Separate studies by semicolon:. Readers curious about plant pathogenic bacteria are encouraged to explore the following and other older sources, which describe key research questions that remain unsolved Smith ; Walker ; Schuster and Coyne ; Vidaver ; Mount and Lacy ; Starr ; Billing ; Nester Theoretical studies suggest that plant diversity is a primary determinant of animal diversity Hutchison ; Rosenzweig ; Knops et al.

Cite them by naming the author, or set of authors, once and listing the years separated by commas:. Similarly, a series of epidemiological studies of P.

Add a letter after the year to help your reader see which source in your reference list you mean. Assign letters chronologically, so that the work that was published first is listed, for example, as a. Mobile organisms that regularly traverse ecosystem boundaries have the capacity to deliver nutrients and energy, and affect consumers within a recipient ecosystem Lundberg and Moberg including vertebrate Sabo and Power b and invertebrate taxa Henschel et al. Here is what the end references for the Sabo and Power sources look like: Numerical response of lizards to aquatic insects and short-term consequences for terrestrial prey.

If you are citing works published by the same first author in the same year but with different groups of additional authors, CSE's official rule is that you should name as many authors as necessary for your reader to be able to distinguish each source. However, many publishers simplify this rule so that the primary author in a group of 3 or more total authors authors is classed as one group. In other words, "Wang et al. The goal of your reference list is to help your reader identify each numbered source quickly and clearly.

CSE has standardized the information to be provided for ease and predictability of reading. Your list should be given a more formal title: References or Cited References. If you used some documents as sources but did not cite them in your paper, list them alphabetically by author under the heading Additional References.

Format your end references Authors' first names are rendered as capitals after their surnames. Bennett AB, Gratton C. In vitro and in vivo reconstitution of the cadherin-catenin-actin complex from Caenorhabditis elegans. References for books follow the order Author s.

APS Press p. References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Author s. Page numbers for that chapter. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. References for journal articles follow the order Author s.

Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Reference list information for articles found online adds a medium designator—[Internet], including the brackets—at the end of the title of the journal, as well as a citation date and a URL.

The CSE Manual does not explicitly require this information if the online content is identical to the print content. Multi-predator effects produced by functionally distinct species vary with prey density. J Insect Sci [Internet]. Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition. Deciduous tree galls [Internet]. University of Wisconsin-Madison; [cited Sep 12].

Stem Cell Research Oversight Committee. University of Wisconsin-Madison policy for multisite research studies using human pluripotent stem cells [Internet]. Draft report diversity in the biomedical research workforce [Internet].

Context dependent protein interpretation of the histone language [dissertation]. If a conference paper is subsequently published, either in the proceedings of the conference or in a journal, cite as a chapter in a book or as an article in a journal.

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Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1) citation–sequence; 2) name–year; and 3) citation–name. These abbreviated references are called in-text references.

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Citing References in Scientific Research Papers Compiled by Timothy T. Allen, revised This paper greatly expands upon a handout originally prepared by an unknown author for distribution to students in introductory earth science courses at Dartmouth College.

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The American Psychological Association standard (APA-standard) is used in most social and psychological papers, and variations of the author/date style are used by many scientific disciplines. For this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing. In-Text Citations There are typically not footnotes or endnotes in scientific writing as there are in humanities and the social sciences. Instead, all citations occur in the text inparenthetical format, with the author(s) and date of publication.

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Scientific papers typically use a AMA format. Cite your source in-text by using superscript numerals. Number the citations in the order in which they appear in the text?. You need to cite your sources in two places within your paper: in-text and bibliography Part I outlines how to cite a paraphrased summary of an author's words or work within your paper. Part II outlines how to create an alphabetical list of references at the end of your paper that lists anything you cite.