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❶The Gradual Release Blended Learning Mode In the school year two schools from the WRDSB engaged in a cross panel collaborative project focusing on teacher learning about project based learning and inquiry.

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Specialy through online if possible. I had idea about statistics little. About the reasearch method part , dont understand actually. You really need an undergraduate-level foundation in psychology to qualify for an advanced degree program. You might want to talk to your advisor at whatever university you obtained your undergraduate degree or MBA from to get some guidance on how to do that. Thank you so much for taking the time to answer our questions! I just finished my undergraduate psychology degree B.

I would greatly appreciate your input about my current situation. Is there anything I could do right away to boost my chances? Should I definitely register for the extra two semesters which will hopefully raise my GPA?

I would not delay graduate school applications just because of that. If you have time, I would recommend you take graduate level courses as a non-degree-seeking student instead of taking independent undergrad courses. Remember that faculty will actually read your transcript, so if you take classes after graduating just to raise your GPA, that will be extremely obvious.

But if you take difficult grad courses e. HR experience also gives a lot of students insight into what running the people operations of an organization is really like, which helps with writing personal statements. Thank you for sharing this very valuable information.

I graduated from the University of Minnesota with a dual degree in Psychology and human resource development in the fall of with a GPA of 3. However, I am concerned that I do not have enough research experience to be a strong candidate for the programs that I am interested in. How important would it be for me to gain additional research experience as you suggest in your article?

Might schools consider my current job as relevant experience? If you want to go into a PhD program, research experience is critical. Your job is unlikely to count, unless you are doing research in it. That way you could get some research experience from within your job.

The only potential exception is if you have fairly stellar GREs, e. Thank you so much Dr. Unfortunately, I am no longer in Minneapolis, but I will reach out to psychology departments at local universities to find research opportunities. I appreciate your advice! My senior year, I started my own business in energy management and for the last year and a half have taken a position as a VP Sales for a fast-growing manufacturing company.

I did what I believe many Psyc undergrads have done, saw my growing debt and decided to pursue money over a personally satisfying career. I believe this is a perspective that small and medium companies overlook due to lack of knowledge and resources and is a big part of what can keep companies from reaching their true potential.

My question to you is having been out of school for awhile and not having a great GPA, will my experience in business help overcome my lacking academic credentials? Also, any thoughts you have regarding my non profit aspirations would be greatly appreciated. So if you want a good shot at such a program, you will want to contact the graduate program director of any program you are considering and explain your situation, gauging their reaction.

Otherwise you might get discarded before anyone who might actually make a decision sees your application i. What is your opinion on this type of program, is it reliable and trust worthy? However, you as a student might indirectly benefit from attending an accredited program in that accreditation in a clinical program usually indicates that the school has a serious psychology program in general.

It is no guarantee though. If not, that is a sure sign of a place you want to avoid. Is it worth to go for i. If you go to a not-well-regarded program, that is not as good of a decision. Landers, First and foremost, thanks for your time. A little about me and what I am trying to accomplish. After completing my enlistment I decided I would further my education. During my undergraduate I struggled due to some unresolved issiues post deployment.

After a couple years of council, I graduated with a 2. From that point, I decided to pursue my MBA. I graduate with a 3. With the that said, I am curious if a PhD is out of the picture due to my subpar undergraduate GPA and if so, what would you recommend? You will need to demonstrate to an admissions committee that 1 you know what psychological research is, preferably IO research in particular and 2 are capable of it. Have said that, be sure you actually want a PhD.

A PhD is specifically a degree in conducting research. First, and foremost, thank you for your blog! However, I got my undergraduate degree in Political Science and took no Psychology courses in college. Do you have any recommendations for someone in my place who wants to have as competitive of application as possible? I am planning on graduate school at least 2 or 3 years away so I do have time I just like to be proactive and make some money to actually pay for it. So, 1, if you want to pursue a PhD, remember that reputable PhD programs are free to attend.

Your tuition will be covered and you will usually receive a stipend to work as a part-time research or teaching assistant. It does not pay WELL but it is enough to survive while you are in school, with a roommate if you want to be a little more comfortable. Plenty of people take out small government-supported loans FAFSA to supplement their income, which is usually a good idea.

The potential problem with this approach for someone out of school is if you have a family to move around. Except in a few unique cases e. You will likely need to pay for that yourself — but it only takes two years, there are more schools that offer them, and admissions is easier, so you are less likely to need to move. So what to do for each of these career paths. You should take, Intro Psych in your first semester, then the Statistics and Research Methods course s afterward.

Anything else is optional. While doing that, you should volunteer at a research lab in that school. In years, with a supportive advisor, you should be able to make that happen. All of this also assumes that your GREs are solid.

I would recommend right now taking a reputable practice GRE. You need a minimum of 40th percentile scores on both Quant and Verbal. The top ranked programs usually admit closer to 90th. That will give you the best sense of which degree is the right path and thus how you need to prepare. Hi dear, My name is Harshpreet Kaur. Just help me with the option that I can opt for. Do I have a chance at getting in? Will anything I have already done help me get in? What are some things I can do to improve my chances?

During that time I also wanted to pursue some business classes and possibly a business degree, I was told by advisers to wait, finish my current degree and then get my MBA. Then it dawned on me.. My GPA in my psych classes was above a 3. My favorite class, by far, in college was Organizational Psych which I received an A. Org Psych was one of three careers that matched perfectly for me based on my interests on Onetonline. After reviewing my strengthsfinder top 5- Strategic, Relator, Belief, developer, ideation and breaking it down, Org Psych was a near perfect fit.

No other career path has ever seemed like a better fit. This is the path I really want to take. Some other possibly useful information: To briefly rehash my questions: Do I have a chance at getting into a program? Will anything in my past help me get in or even just look alright to potential Masters programs? What are some things I can do moving forward to increase my chance of getting in?

You do have a chance at getting into a program, but not a particularly great program. More selective programs are going to see that GPA as a significant problem.

All of this is potentially upended if you have a stellar GRE score, so that is probably where I would focus my effort, if I was you. Thank you for all the information shared. So I do not know how to proceed with application process for the grad school. It would be a great help if you can help me through this. Thanks for keeping this blog up and continuing to respond. My question is more in line with what to do after completing the program.

However, halfway through the program I began to question the wisdom of doing an online program, but I pushed through and finished anyway. I had a solid GPA 3. Online degrees generally do result in lower salaries than non-online degrees, which I suspect is for the reasons you mention — lack of network, lack of experience, etc.

As to recommendations, it depends on your specific program, so I will give you some info and you can make your own call. If you are going on the market with a lot of non-IO courses, that will make you less competitive than someone who does.

If you did get that coursework, you should have a lot of specific skills, e. So that is what you need to market yourself on. So if you got the most content on performance appraisal, then look those sorts of job descriptions that include appraisal. However, my research background is almost zero. I will have an independent study class doing research next Fall in HR management. This summer I have some options: What would you suggest for my case, Dr.

Should I take a gap year and try to gain more research experience or I can try applying the coming Fall? Thank you very much. For your specific situation, it depends a bit on how prestigious the biomedical program is. Remember that you will need 3 or 4 rec letters, so the more people in positions of authority that can speak to your work ethic and performance in any research context, the better. What about undergrad research in something else?

I have a B. While there, I did two years of undergraduate research in a cancer lab. I thought I would want to do medicine but changed my mind and instead focused on the public health research part of my degree after I took a biostatistics course and loved it. I also received an undergraduate fellowship award for my research. Is there something I should be prioritizing when considering the change?

Definitely not enough to delay applying, anyway. They should be able to give you a straight answer. I would half-expect that even if it says this on a website somewhere that they may not actually hold people to it. But that is the sort of nuance you need to talk on the phone with people to figure out. I have recently graduated and received my B.

I was heavily involved in psychological research during my undergraduate career. However, after being involved in different research laboratories, I realized that I am interested in working with numbers and data, but also understanding the organizational structures of various systems within industries. Would this be a good option if I want to work as an analyst e. Responsibilities include working with internal clients to design and execute talent-related experiments, launch and analyze surveys to help us improve People Operations processes and solve HR- related challenges creatively.

Although this is interesting to me, I am mostly interested in a position such as data analyst. Thank you for responding to my post. I recently received my acceptance email from Baruch, and I will be starting the program in the spring. However, I still have some questions that I wanted to ask you specifically. Since I have not yet met with a graduate advisor to discuss my academic plan, I wanted to first ask for your advice regarding which courses I should focus on taking at Baruch that will prepare me for the career I want.

As I stated in my original post, my goal is to pursue a career which utilizes data to inform better business practices, mostly within HR. This is mainly where I want to go after I graduate from the MS program. My question now is: What courses should I take at Baruch that can better prepare me for this career direction I want to pursue? It will probably be SPSS. I have two Masters degree- public policy and economics and have been a bureaucrat for 21 years, most of it in health care.

I am done with it and looking for a career change. I have spent the last one year looking at various options, completed a basic certificate in positive psychology and fell in love with psychology. I have read a lot about I-O psychology and given my work and economics very strong in research methods background, I would like to do a Masters program in I-O psychology and practice as one. I am 47 years old and not interested in going into a research PhD program.

I ask this because it is a mind boggling mix out there with the number of options and difficult to figure out what is really important if one wants to be a practitioner.

In general, brick-and-mortar institutions are much better at both of these. The things you should look out for are the same as everywhere else though: That last one may require emailing some current students. I am not sure how relevant your methods background will be. Positive psych is notoriously squishy and dissimilar from traditional psych science, so I doubt you got too deep into the details of psychometrics there either.

All of which is to say I would recommend you do not assume you can use any of what you already know. But you will want to keep an open mind in making such a switch.

Landers, Thank you for all the information you provided. Must I obtain a second undergraduate degree in psychology to be considered, or do you suppose I could be admitted with what I have? No, you should be fine with that coursework, although you will want to explain in your personal statement why you appear to be making a career switch.

Beyond that, the only issue is that you have not taken a psych research methods course. The only undergraduate psychology course I took was Psych and received an A. With an undergrad degree, that may not be very close, but the more exposure you have to how IO is practiced, the better. Generally speaking, higher is better. Sometimes they will accept you but then require you take those classes later, but that will differ by program; you should ask the graduate program director at each program you are considering if it matters.

As for steps… you just find the website and apply! The biggest challenge will be reference letters, I think. My educational background is as follows: I have always considered a change of career albeit at a later age but have finally decided to give it a real try. Could you please provide an insight on my chances or rather suggest what could be a path I can take towards getting that PhD? I am not sure how the admissions requirements for social would differ from I-O, although I expect they are similar.

I would suggest studying for and completing a Psychology GRE Subject Test to demonstrate that you have the bare minimum background knowledge in psychology necessary to be successful. Thank you so much for all of the info! And I would like to seek your opinion too. I mainly focus on clinical work and only got one publication related to children and parents. I am thinking to pursue future career in academia but focus on work psychology.

Will you recommend a master degree before going for PhD? I prefer to study abroad but it seems fewer scholarship or studentship are available for international students comparing to local students. Do you mind pointing me to some resources for financial support too? Thank you for your time and advice in advance. The GRE score is likely to be your biggest barrier.

All top PhD programs in the US offer tuition waivers plus stipends for working as teaching or research assistants, so that is automatic on application as long as you can get a student work visa. They are usually on a school by school basis. I always wanted to pursue a career in Psychology, ever since I can remember but since I was still somehow good in numbers I ended up doing a BBA in Organizational Management at a Psychology University.

Most of my career life has been in accounting doing bookkeeping, along with HR, payroll, inventory, marketing and even e-commerce now. While I like what I do, for the most part, I feel like I am not going anywhere lately. Not in terms of growing up as a professional nor anything that resembles a boost in my salary and I cannot even think that how everything has been unfolding right now, it is the same it will be 30 yrs from now. I thought about it for a while and then paused the idea and when I rekindled it again, I thought to do it with a concentration in HR management to break that cycle of a one woman band and be able to concentrate in one thing and excel at it.

I felt so intrigue by it that I started researching more about it and the more I read the more I like it. I was amaze instantly by the opportunities. It feels like I am getting the best of both worlds. I can not only pursue my dream but I get to keep a portion of the business aspect as well as I can go deeper into HR which was originally my end goal. With a hefty cost, I cannot give me the luxury of gambling the career in hopes that the market changes by the time I am done.

I have asked for schools to come back at me and let me know what programs do they have for job placement after finishing either master or PhD if I end up going that route but neither FIU or Albizu, which are the two I have close by offering program, have come back with any feedback in regards.

In the other hand, and leaving all the above to the side, every one is telling it is a crazy move to switch career now, to be carefully.

My input in HR has been limited by the size of the companies I have worked for and any research done if applicable have been primarily on a specific item for product development. I am a motivated, goal driven person that so far has been able to do all I have set my mind for.

I am at a crossroad where I must decide to pursue my dream or to be practical and do something else and keep the psychology aspect just a dream. While in my mind I might have already made my decision, I want to make sure my decision is the corrert one.

Most people in the IO community find work through their networks rather than through job boards. Which is fine if you want to work in HR, but not really what the IO training is directed at. Also, if you work for the university at the same time as your program, PhD programs almost always waive tuition. So if you are accepted there, it should not cost you anything in real dollars although there is certainly opportunity cost.

It demands logical thinking, using the key assumptions of the relevant subject area and even the development of this area further by research. In no SAG was the acquisition of this skill taught in a separate element or module, i. This view was also supported by the perceptions of students. Data collected from students showed that they attached great importance to this competence as it enabled them to relate theory and practice, evaluate findings logically and use instruments to find out alternative ways; they perceived it as being highly pertinent to their future professional career.

For the description of the competence a large number of expressions were used: This wide definition is essential as it relates directly to the teaching and learning activities which enable students to achieve this competence. It is highlighted that the competence is directly related to the ability to solve problems, another highly ranked generic competence. It was reported that students develop the capacity for analysis and synthesis through. Assessment of the extent to which this competence has been achieved varies according to the way in which it has been developed.

In some SAGs this was done partly through group meetings and discussion sessions. The assessment can also be based on how students analysed material or information. In the Education SAG a variety of modes of assessment were identified: Students may also contribute to their assessment by submitting or presenting a "self-evaluation" at the end of the semester.

Feedback is organised through group discussions or individually, whether in writing or face-to-face. SAGs also highlight that students identified a number of ways by which they would know if they had achieved this competence, such as. In most cases, however, it is described as the ability to perform specific academic tasks, which may vary according to the discipline.

In initial teacher education there is a clear projection into the future teaching profession. In the second cycle this competence is often described in more professional terms, and may be more closely associated with activities to be performed in the workplace such as collecting information from diverse sources and writing a report on a complex issue. The different teaching methods used to help the students achieve this competence reflect different approaches to practice.

Accordingly, the opportunities for practice provided inside and outside the institution are described differently in the various disciplines, as exercises of various types, practical classes, lecture sessions, seminars, field classes, laboratory sessions, industrial projects, industrial placements, study visits, field excursions, student teaching practice. Some disciplines suggest that this competence can be best developed by doing a project or writing a thesis.

Others, like Business Studies, Chemistry, Mathematics and Education emphasise the need to provide appropriate tools and methods as well as opportunities for problem solving.

The Education group emphasises the importance of reflection on work done. Earth Science Geology reported the centrality of this competence to the development of subject knowledge. Sometimes the learning activities intended to develop this competence are carried out in connection with the world of work.

In Physics, Chemistry, Business Studies among other subjects final year projects can be carried out partially or totally in an industrial environment, and in Nursing and Education there is a substantial practical component. Learning activities for this competence may also be carried out within the academic learning environment, performed by whole classes, small groups and individual students.

I t is traditional in Earth Science to have students undertake a mapping thesis involving some six weeks applying their knowledge in the field working either autonomously or in a small group, usually with limited supervision.

The resultant report on this independent work can comprise a significant component of the final exam and is considered extremely important by employers. Continuous assessment of progress is based on seminars, exercises of increasing complexity, laboratory work, short oral presentations, teaching practice, assignments, regular meetings with the teacher for evaluation and feedback on the project.

For some courses, only a part of the marks are given for coursework, in other cases coursework completely replaces the traditional examination. This may be particularly true in the second cycle. This competence can be assessed through the essay format provided that the task set is clear and well constructed.

A three part model for a task might include a requirement to outline the theoretical bases of the issue; a requirement to outline relevant issues to do with implementation in practice; and illustrations of how this is done, or would be done, in the working context of the candidate. It would not examine content knowledge very efficiently, since the topic would be too large to deal with, and there might even be a danger of plagiarism, or at least over reliance on the source materials.

Generally students understand whether or to what degree they have achieved this competence from the feedback they get from the teachers, either on progress made during the course or on their final products and exams. This general competence is the one most obviously linked to the single subject areas. Hence in the abstract one might expect that the ways of forming this competence would be different for each area, tightly linked to the specificities of the subject.

In practice this is not entirely the case. Basic general knowledge is perceived as having three aspects: The third aspect is constituted by related or necessary general knowledge which is not strictly subject specific: Little space is given in the reports to considering whether the basic general knowledge of the subject at first cycle level might in some cases and to some degree be acquired in school or previous to the higher education experience, and hence be assessed at entry and integrated or completed during the higher education experience in a selective way.

Normally for first cycle study universities are very familiar with the school curriculum and have a good idea of what is covered, particularly in the pre-university period. However, in Physics, the subject area group states that the maths knowledge and capabilities obtained in upper school are evaluated at entry in higher education. Another exception is Education, where mature students wishing to enter a teacher education programme may present a portfolio of evidence to show that their qualifications both formal and non-formal are appropriate for entry.

Basic general knowledge for most subject areas is learned through lectures, reading, discussions, library and Internet searches and assessment through written or oral examination. Discussion of papers, exam results or discussion during the oral examination is thought to make students aware of whether their basic general subject knowledge is adequate. Great effort does not seem to be put into thought and reflection about this aspect of learning; it is accepted by all concerned as necessary, largely a matter of factual and conceptual knowledge.

Naturally the pan-European context of Tuning shows that in some subject areas the content of this basic general subject knowledge varies quite radically from country to country, although in others there seems to be relatively little difference. However, in most subject areas there is general agreement about the core subject knowledge of first cycle degrees. It is more complicated to develop or foster the other component of basic general knowledge, the mindset of the discipline, its values, and its methodological or even ethical base.

However here a number of strategies were mentioned by the SAGs. Some aspects rigour of analysis, ethical values and intellectual standards are discussed in lecture courses, and presumably are criteria for success in assignments. The objective in this case is to tell students what the standards and the values of the subject area are. Students also acquire the mindset of the subject area through their reading, where they constantly see models of how their subject community thinks; they will also gradually see how the different schools within the subject community think and what their attitudes are.

In the subject areas that have discussed this general competence, we find that the mindset or attitude, intellectual and ethical values considered fundamental to the subject are also thought to be encouraged by hands-on learning experiences, such as laboratory work in physics or experience in analysis of historical documents in history, preparation of oral presentations, reports and posters in education.

Information management skills ability to retrieve and analyse information from different sources. This competence is fairly uniformly understood to mean knowing how to find information in the literature, how to distinguish between primary and secondary sources or literature, how to use the library — in a traditional way or electronically — how to find information on the Internet. One subject area, history, devotes much specific attention to the various kinds of sources of information and techniques for accessing them and interpreting them indicating archival documents, papyrus, archaeological materials, secondary sources, oral history and so forth as well as to the more usual kinds of information listed by the other subject areas.

In this particular subject area a variety of activities, lectures, workshops, site visits, group and individual work including final research dissertations are seen as connected to this general competence.

In all subject areas there are specific teaching-learning activities devoted to learning library skills. Some of these activities may organised in conjunction with the library staff and have the form of visits to the library or library workshops. Retrieval of information from the Internet and its critical evaluation may be demonstrated in a lecture context with multi-medial support, followed by assignments of student tasks and evaluation of the results. Information retrieval skills are seen as progressive: In history, the student is required to read and analyse documents of various kinds and to contextualise them using the bibliography and published sources.

Such exercises will be more or less elaborate and more or less original according to level of study. In earth science students are asked to organise presentations, written or oral, of the material collected and to show that they have interpreted it properly using the relevant literature.

Feedback on students' efforts is perceived as particularly important for this competence, and is in the form of written or oral comments on student work. On the basis of the reports it seems that the subject areas have a clear perception of the importance of this competence and that it is developed and assessed — to varying degrees of complexity and characteristics that are determined by the subject area — in all disciplinary studies.

This competence is seen as central to three subject areas, Education, Nursing and Business Studies, all of which in one way or another provide specific activities to develop what is perceived as an important competence for the subject area as well as an important general competence.

For the other subject areas, this competence is perceived as useful or necessary for survival, citizenship and employment, but not subject related — and according to some reports not even very important. In Business Studies the means mentioned for developing these skills are group work, presentations, specific lectures, training-coaching course. A specific kind of activity is a computer-based Business Studies game in which groups of students must act out realistic business scenarios, working in groups and dealing with issues of group dynamics, time management, decision making and so forth.

Nonetheless, it is stated that except for the actual performance in such activities, there is little knowledge of how to evaluate and assess interpersonal skills and that this competence needs further work.

In Education and Nursing, the interpersonal skills cluster of competences is at the centre of reflection. In fact, in a very meaningful sense, for many graduates of Education and Nursing their work is an entirely interpersonal activity. In Nursing particular communication aspects are key skills, such as presencing, observation, listening, asking questions, non-verbal communication, ability to have conversations with different groups of interlocutors, leading and participating in meetings.

These skills are often contextualized in written practices, including, for example, preparing written health promotion materials for different audiences. In Education, there also is a great awareness of the different aspects that this competence has.

Interpersonal skills are defined as including not only the ability to work in a group, to present one's projects effectively and possibly to develop leadership skills — here emphasis is placed on the dialogic nature of interpersonal skills and of the teaching-learning process.

SAGs noted that students should be and will inevitably be in possession of many interpersonal skills when they start higher education; however the considerations of the Education and Nursing groups underline that the higher education experience must add substantially to those competences, and must indeed give a whole new cast to them.

This will not surprise given the importance of interpersonal abilities for those fields. The ways in which such competences can be developed start from making students aware of the fact that they have much to learn in this field, i. Another important aspect is for the student to find out whether what they believe they said was understood that way by others. An aim of these activities is to develop awareness and confidence in their interpersonal know-how in the students.

All the competences developed are put into play in practice when the students actually enter the workplace in a training setting. Students in this case will observe role models in action and analyse what they see and hear; students also keep a personal diary or log of their experiences and observations.

Results can be assessed fairly effectively in the context of the activities mentioned. Some teachers consulted by the Education group were sceptical about whether these skills could really be taught and learned formally or accurately assessed. However, most teacher education programmes make use of competence-based assessment procedures to assess the classroom practice elements of courses.

These include formal assessment of the students' competence in interpersonal areas such as questioning, classroom management, teacher-pupil relations, and teamwork with colleagues and so on. The strategies outlined certainly have the merit of creating an environment in which interpersonal skills can be explicitly considered and their development targeted. It is stated that students are aware of whether they have been successful in acquiring the appropriate interpersonal skills when they feel confident in groups and in their practice teaching.

This feeling of confidence may be of varying value in different countries as an indication of successful achievement. The perception and feedback of others, particularly learners, would seem to be more significant.

The importance and range of communication skills for Nurses is made explicit in programme outlines and assessment procedures. Overall, on the basis of the reports available, it appears that interpersonal skills may not be taken sufficiently into consideration by higher education academics, with the exception of those in whose subject area those competences or skills are thought to be fundamental.

This is not surprising, considering that interpersonal skills are perhaps exactly the kind of competence that traditional university education ignored and which nonetheless are of great importance in the educational process.

This may be the case in wholly mono-cultural contexts, but how many of those are there in 21 st century Europe , or, indeed, 21st century anywhere? It is not proposed here that all subject areas imitate the Education, Nursing and Business Studies SAGs in the emphasis given to this group of skills and competences, nor that the same teaching and learning strategies be used.

However, students in all subject areas would benefit if programmes were to address more explicit, analytical and practical attention to this group of competences because there is no doubt that whatever employment a graduate will find, these skills will be of use to them. Hence a useful direction of endeavour to educate the educators could be to develop awareness, both in our capacity as teachers and as learners, of this group of skills.

The ability to work autonomously is prized in all subject areas. Naturally in real life - post graduation -- the ability to organise available time, choose priorities, work to deadlines and deliver what has been agreed on, is essential for personal and professional life and citizenship in general. At present, the main methods reported of developing this competence in students are, in the initial stages of higher education, to ask the students to use methods other than lectures e.

Some recommendations are made not to harass students with many small deadlines, or to give constant reminders of deadlines, letting the students learn to organise their time by having to do it. The final paper or dissertation is seen as a particularly useful means of ascertaining whether the student has learned to use time and organise complex tasks effectively.

Experience shows that national traditions are very different in the attitudes and practices with regard to student autonomy. In some countries, particularly where students are more mature when they start their studies, they are considered to be adults from the very beginning, attendance is not mandatory and deadlines are quite flexible, going to the point of giving students the opportunity of staking all on a final exam — for a course, for a year, or even for an entire course of study.

The other extreme is based on a closely structured course organisation in which students are given specific study tasks which are checked during the semester writing papers, or reading and studying certain material on which the student is tested according to a strict time schedule, often coordinated with other time schedules in the department or Faculty to avoid overlap.

In this case the basic strategy is to insist on the student having accomplished the task on time, in a context perhaps reminiscent of school organisation, but perhaps without the leeway permitted in school.

It is interesting to see, in fact, that for some the ability to work autonomously can be developed by a sink or swim strategy, whereas for others, it can be accomplished by enforcing and insisting on the respect of a framework of task organisation decided by the teacher. As part of formal programmes of study in most subject disciplines students are required to be appropriately skilful in aspects of computing and information technology.

Within programmes of study in different subject disciplines this competence may be seen as one or more of. Under each of these the content, emphasis and weight within the curriculum will vary considerably with the subject discipline. At one extreme, it may be assumed that students have the necessary competence on entry to the programme or that they will informally acquire necessary competences as they progress through their studies.

This is likely to be the case where computer skills are seen only as a relatively elementary skill, both in terms of supporting study and enhancing future employability. Not all SAGs focussed on this competence in the consultation, even though their subject is one were computer applications are very widely used, e. Those SAGs which did address this competence emphasised that the objective is that the student feel confident to approach and use a computer for any type of activity required by the subject curriculum.

Detailed responses reported the need for students to be able to create and store information on any media, e-mail, search on the web, and specifically have experience in data logging of experimental apparatus to a computer and processing of the resulting data, use subject specific software Chemistry.

Word processing or special software to present in words or graphics plotting or calculate, evaluate and access information wherever it is available Physics.

Students are also increasingly asked to become familiar with learning spaces to make use of new forms of e-learning via facilities such as the use of communications networks and new educational technologies.

Modern e-learning management systems usually use special facilities such as virtual learning environments e. WebCT, Blackboard , newsrooms, direct web-links Education. The competence is also a requirement for writing papers such as theses, dissertations in an adequate format, fulfilling all academic standards in terms as footnotes, literature and source review History.

Students receive both, formal lectures and the opportunity to apply their knowledge in computer laboratories to develop their computer competences. Some SAGs report the initial provision of free access sessions after which specifically subject oriented instruction is given. Formal lessons are sometimes scheduled much later in the programme 2nd or 3rd year , when specific software is being introduced. However, most of the time, basic courses are provided at the beginning of programmes by the institutions, sometimes in the format of an intensive short programme.

Web evaluation is also considered an important way of developing computing skills in a wider sense. Typically such teaching and learning sessions would start with a class-based task using an on-line site and generate student criteria for evaluation which are discussed and categorised. Some lecturers then steer students towards finding other evaluation sites as part of web search skills, others give out lecturer-selected criteria.

These evaluation criteria will be tested by referring to identified web-sites. According to the Education group 2 , forms of teaching and learning to develop the computer competences of students include: Assessment of developing computer skills is based on requiring students to demonstrate evidence of the competence e. In Education all activities for early development of ICT skills focus on skills development rather than knowledge or awareness.

These include that students. Where skills are assessed, students are informed about their achievements by grades and oral feed-back. Reference is made to all tasks students had to perform, covering demonstrations in supervised computer laboratory sessions, assigned computer based tasks, practical laboratory reports on experiments and even the final year project report e. When describing this competence SAGs use the following verbs: One group for whom computer use may be problematic are mature students entering university for the first time.

Schools nowadays teach computer skills, and both soft- and hardware have changed out of all recognition in the past 10 years. Mature students may not, however, be computer literate, and may not feel confident enough to ask for help.

All SAGs agreed about the importance of research skills especially, but not only, for the second cycle. However some differences emerged in the meanings attached to this in the various disciplines. While Education and History emphasise knowledge of different research methods, Physics focuses on knowledge of the techniques used in a particular research field and Chemistry also refers to designing specific projects and evaluating their results.

No clear distinction was stated between learning how to do research with the help of a teacher and learning how to do research through the activities related to a personal research project; yet in scrutinizing programme descriptions collected, it was quite clear in Education and Nursing, at least, that specific units addressed the development of research knowledge and skills, especially in the second cycle.

This is in addition to the integrated evidence based teaching that Educationists and Nursing specialists espouse. Since research competence is developed by following these two parallel paths, in addition to continual exposure to research through reading research reports as part of programme requirements , it is sometimes difficult to draw a clear line between the teacher's role and the learners activities: The lecturer's contribution would mainly consist in presenting methodological approaches, creating an awareness of the research context, i.

There is agreement on two main points: The comparison of approaches to learning, teaching and assessment from the viewpoint of subject areas on a European wide scale is a new step forward in making higher education transparent. This brief overview suggests that although complex, the task is entirely feasible, given good will and good listening competences.

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