As with inbred mice, members of some animal species are genetically identical, enabling researchers to compare different procedures on identical animals.
Some animals have biological similarities to humans that make them particularly good models for specific diseases, such as rabbits for atherosclerosis or monkeys for polio. The polio vaccine was developed, and its safety is still tested, in monkeys. Animals are also indispensable to the rapidly growing field of biotechnology, where they are used to develop, test, and make new products such as monoclonal antibodies.
Researchers draw upon the full range of living things to study life, from bacteria to human beings. But researchers also investigate a wide range of animal species, from insects and nematodes to dogs, cats, and monkeys.
In particular, mammals are essential to researchers because they are the closest to us in evolutionary terms. For example, many diseases that affect human beings also affect other mammals, but they do not occur in insects, plants, or bacteria.
Far fewer animals are used in research than are used for other purposes. An estimated 17 to 22 million vertebrate animals are used each year in research, education, and testing—less than 1 percent of the number killed for food. In fiscal year , about , dogs and 52, cats were used in experimentation, with 40, to 50, of those dogs being bred specifically for research and the others being acquired from pounds.
This colorful, page booklet is designed to educate teenagers about the role of animal research in combating disease, past and present; the perspective of animal use within the whole spectrum of biomedical research; the regulations and oversight that govern animal research; and the continuing efforts to use animals more efficiently and humanely.
Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Imagine not having a choice and being used for testing without having a say; for everyone this seems like a horrible nightmare but for animals this nightmare is reality.
Animals should not be used for testing. Although animal testing is wrong, it is a good way to make sure the product research is safe before retailing it and letting people use it. Animal testing should not be used because animals have no way of saying no and it is wrong is every way. For example, animals are being taken advantage of.
Animals also have no say in what gets done to them. For example, testing on animals is abusing an animal. Think about if the shoe was on the other foot. If animals were testing and abusing humans, humans would try and revolt. Being tested and dying from it is completely wrong.
Animals being killed is wrong is every way possible and this killing needs to stop. Animal testing is a good way to make sure products can be used on a person daily.
By testing animals, everyone knows whether or not the product is safe to give out to people. To prevent humans from getting sick or dying, testing the product on animals tells researchers if the product is able to be used on humans. It also tells researchers if they need to fix something or change it to make the product better. Also, cures for diseases can be found by testing on animals. Researchers can find the cure for different diseases by testing on animals. Finding the cure for diseases can help everyone in the long run because people will have a cure.
Even when alternatives to the use of animals are available, U. Because the AWA specifically excludes rats, mice, birds, and cold-blooded animals, more than 95 percent of the animals used in laboratories are not even covered by the minimal protection provided by federal laws.
Between and , nearly half a million animals—excluding mice, rats, birds, and cold-blooded animals—were subjected to painful experiments and not provided with pain relief. A survey by researchers at Newcastle University found that mice and rats who underwent painful, invasive procedures, such as skull surgeries, burn experiments, and spinal surgeries, were provided with post-procedural pain relief only about 20 percent of the time.
In addition to the actual pain of experiments, a comprehensive view of the situation for animals in laboratories should take into account the totality of the suffering imposed on them, including the stress of capture, transportation, and handling; the extreme confinement and unnatural living conditions; the deprivation that constitutes standard husbandry procedures; and the physical and psychological stress experienced by animals used for breeding, who endure repeated pregnancies, only to have their young torn away from them, sometimes immediately after birth.
Animals in laboratories endure lives of deprivation, isolation, stress, trauma, and depression even before they are enrolled in any sort of protocol. This fact is especially apparent when one considers the specialized needs of each species. In nature, many primates, including rhesus macaques and baboons, stay for many years or their entire lives with their families and troops.
They spend hours together every day, grooming each other, foraging, playing, and making nests to sleep in each night. But in laboratories, primates are often caged alone.
Laboratories often do not allow social interactions, provide family groups or companions, or offer grooming possibilities, nests, or surfaces softer than metal.
Indeed, in many laboratories, animals are handled roughly—even for routine monitoring procedures that fall outside the realm of an experimental protocol—and this only heightens their fear and stress.
Video footage from inside laboratories shows that many animals cower in fear every time someone walks by their cage. The most significant trend in modern research is the recognition that animals rarely serve as good models for the human body.
Human clinical and epidemiological studies, human tissue- and cell-based research methods, cadavers, sophisticated high-fidelity human-patient simulators, and computational models have the potential to be more reliable, more precise, less expensive, and more humane alternatives to experiments on animals.
Advanced microchips that use real human cells and tissues to construct fully functioning postage stamp—size organs allow researchers to study diseases and also develop and test new drugs to treat them. We can now test skin irritation using reconstructed human tissues e. Medical students are trained with a combination of sophisticated human-patient simulators, interactive computer programs, safe human-based teaching methods, and clinical experience. Today, one can even become a board-certified surgeon without harming any animals.
Some medical professional organizations, like the American Board of Anesthesiologists, even require physicians to complete simulation training—not animal laboratories—to become board-certified. Ethics dictate that the value of each life in and of itself cannot be superseded by its potential value to anyone else.
Secondly, not all medical research has been proven successful for humans through animal testing. As already stated in the previous paragraph, the diseases humans and animals develop are vastly different and are artificially induced in animals.
Should the use of animals in research be a mandatory part of modern progressive science? Yes; Currently animal testing is a compulsory, legal part of drug testing. Animal studies are always used alongside other types of research such as cell cultures, computer modelling and human clinical trials.
95% of animals used in experiments are not protected by the federal Animal Welfare Act (AWA), which excludes birds, rats and mice bred for research, and cold-blooded animals such as reptiles and most fish. 89% of scientists surveyed by the Pew Research Center were . Jan 17, · Although animal testing is wrong, it is a good way to make sure the product research is safe before retailing it and letting people use it. Animal testing should not be used because animals have no way of saying no and it is wrong is every way. Animal testing is wrong because animals can’t say no.
Therefore, animals should not be used in research or to test the safety of products. First, animals' rights are violated when they are used in research. Tom Regan, a philosophy professor at North Carolina State University, states: "Animals have a basic moral right to respectful treatment. Jun 04, · But the most unpleasant thing is that not all of animals which are used for researches are protected by the animal welfare act. But even those animals, whose life is protected, can get badly injured. None of us can imagine the pain during the experiments/5(21).