This is the part of the research paper structure is where you will discuss the methods you used to come up with the results. You should be able to describe in detail the methodology used as well as the materials needed to employ that method such as questionnaires, interviews, statistics and other hard data you were able to obtain. This is the part of the research paper structure where you will state all the results you got out of your study.
You can present it as quantitative information in the form of graphs, statistics, charts, and tables. Or, present it as qualitative data that includes transcriptions of interviews, survey results, and questionnaire results. It can also be a combination of both qualitative and quantitative information.
This is where you will discuss your results and state your opinion about it. Generalizations based on the results you got are also an important part of this section. Explain the repercussions or importance of the results you were able to obtain from this study. Then, state details or examples that can support that statement and refer it back to the introduction you made.
Conclusions are important in unifying your entire study. You can elaborate on important points here and restate the major results you got. Conclude with a generalization of your entire study and answer questions presented in the introduction. You will have to provide recommendations for further study because as said in the introduction, there are limitations to this study.
You have to provide a comprehensive and detailed list of all books, data and people you used as sources. If you would like to thank or mention important people who helped you create and finish this study, you can do so in this section. Explore the concept of vengeance in the epic poem Beowulf. If you're writing about a historical event, try focusing on the forces that contributed to what happened. If you're writing about scientific research or findings, follow the scientific method to analyze your results.
You may not immediately know what your thesis statement should be, even once you've chosen your topic. Doing some brainstorming can help you discover what you think about your topic. Consider it from as many angles as you can. Things that repeat are often important. See if you can decipher why these things are so crucial. Do they repeat in the same way each time, or differently?
How does the text work? If you're writing a rhetorical analysis, for example, you might analyze how the author uses logical appeals to support her argument and decide whether you think the argument is effective. If you're analyzing a creative work, consider things like imagery, visuals in a film, etc. If you're analyzing research, you may want to consider the methods and results and analyze whether the experiment is a good design. A mind map can be helpful to some people. Start with your central topic, and arrange smaller ideas around it in bubbles.
Connect the bubbles to identify patterns and how things are related. In fact, that can be a good way to start off! Don't discount any ideas just yet. Write down any element or fact that you think of as you examine your topic. Come up with a thesis statement. The thesis statement is a sentence or two that summarizes the claim you will make in your paper.
It tells the reader what your essay will be about. Depending on your assignment, you may need to work only with your primary sources the text or texts you're analyzing or with primary and secondary sources, such as other books or journal articles. The assignment should tell you what types of sources are required. Good evidence supports your claim and makes your argument more convincing. List out the supporting evidence, noting where you found it, and how it supports your claim.
An outline will help structure your essay and make writing it easier. Be sure that you understand how long your essay needs to be.
While some teachers are fine with the standard "5 paragraph essay" introduction, 3 body paragraphs, conclusion , many teachers prefer essays to be longer and explore topics more in-depth. Structure your outline accordingly.
If you're not quite sure how all your evidence fits together, don't worry! Making an outline can help you figure out how your argument should progress. You can also make a more informal outline that groups your ideas together in large groups. From there, you can decide what to talk about where. Your essay will be as long as it needs to be to adequately discuss your topic. A common mistake students make is to choose a large topic and then allow only 3 body paragraphs to discuss it.
This makes essays feel shallow or rushed. Don't be afraid to spend enough time discussing each detail! Your introduction should give your reader background information about your topic. Try to make your introduction engaging but not too overzealous.
Also avoid dramatic introductions beginning an essay with a question or exclamation is generally best to avoid. In general, do not use the first I or second you person in your essay.
State your thesis, generally as the last sentence in the first paragraph. Revenge was a legally recognized right in ancient Anglo-Saxon culture. The many revenges in the epic poem Beowulf show that retribution was an essential part of the Anglo-Saxon age. However, not all revenges are created alike.
The poet's portrayal of these revenges suggests that the dragon was more honorable in his act of revenge than Grendel's mother. This introduction gives your readers information they should know to understand your argument, and then presents an argument about the complexity of a general topic revenge in the poem.
This type of argument can be interesting because it suggests that the reader needs to think about the text very carefully and not take it at face value. Write your body paragraphs. Each body paragraph should have 1 a topic sentence, 2 an analysis of some part of the text and 3 evidence from the text that supports your analysis and your thesis statement.
A topic sentence tells the reader what the body paragraph will be about. The analysis of the text is where you make your argument. The evidence you provide supports your argument. Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Use the active voice as much as possible.
Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied.
Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale.
A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question s your study addresses.
Once the scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the Introduction should begin.
This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials. In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization details follow below: Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment s ; subheadings work well for this purpose. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up.
In general, provide enough quantitative detail how much, how long, when, etc. You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance usually at 0.
The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others.
Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future. The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual.
Strategy for writing the Methods section. Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected , 2 typical size weight, length, etc , 3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults?
Seedlings or mature plants? Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims.
Include the date s of the study e. Location data must be as precise as possible: When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.
Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e.
When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings.
Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e.
You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e. It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source vendor and catalog number for reagents used, e.
Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance.
Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed.
This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details. The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr.
Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions.
In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. Tube 4's A was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.
The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results , without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures. The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed.
Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or Figures in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible.
Use the past tense.
Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline The purpose of your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement.
The analytical essay asks you to take a small section of the entire topic, and use critical thinking to come up with some sort of argument, aka your thesis! Write an .
Video: Writing an Analytical Essay: Example & Structure Since analysis is one of the cornerstones of critical thought, the analytical essay is a frequent, often demanding, and potentially. The remaining authors have reviewed the work and/or aided in study design or data analysis (International Committee of Medical Editors, ). Structure of a Research Paper services, technologies, and spaces in the Health Sciences Libraries and advances learning and research throughout the Academic Health Center. Search the Health.
Writing an analytical research paper outline could be easy, provided you know the background of the topic well. Learn the techniques from us. Aug 06, · How to Write an Analytical Essay. Writing an analytical essay can seem daunting, especially if you've never done it before. An outline will help structure your essay and make writing it easier. Be sure that you understand how long your essay needs to be. Write a Research Essay. How to. Write an Academic Essay. How to%(76).